Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

Jesus the Divine Judge of All

Responding to a Muslim Greenhorn

Sam Shamoun

I just recently discovered an attempt by an anonymous Muslim to refute my article concerning the fact that the NT identifies Jesus as God since it describes him as the Judge of the whole world, a role which the OT assigns only to Yahweh. The anonymous writer calls himself question mark, a rather befitting name in light of the quality of his response.

This latest Muslim greenhorn cites the following passages to show that even believers will rule on thrones and judge the world, including angels: Matthew 19:28; 1 Corinthians 6:2-3.

He then summarizes his points:

  1. There are New Testament verses which exclusively attribute the divine privilege of judgment to mere mortals, which should have been sole right of sovereign God.
  2. While Shamoun showed us that his assumed god – Jesus (peace be upon him) would be judging “living and dead”, on the other hand we read in New Testament that saints would be judging nor just mere mortals but even angels!
  3. We have noted Christian scholars like Barnes, Henry, Johnson and Mc Garvey agree to the idolatrous fact that there was/is/would be some sort of divine association/union/partnership in the divine functionality of judgment between saints and God.

It seems that this is going to be another time where we will have to educate a Muslim dawagandist on how to interpret the Scriptures correctly and assist him in learning how to properly read sources.

In the first place, the very same Scriptures that the greenhorn distorted to his own destruction (cf. 2 Peter 3:15-16) amply testify that Christ is exalted above every creature, which includes all of the believers whom Christ graciously allows to share in his kingdom.

This leads us to our second point. The Holy Bible testifies that Christ is the Agent and Sustainer of creation, the very One that the Father used to bring the entire creation into existence.

Third, the only reason why believers are even allowed to reign and judge angels is because of what Christ has done on their behalf. According to the NT, Jesus has purchased believers by his blood in order to make them a royal priesthood, a kingdom of priests to serve God. Christ’s perfect life of obedience and death are the very basis upon which believers are granted the right to rule and judge disbelievers. Christ’s death has also given the believers power over unclean spirits such as Satan.

Fourth, even though the believers are granted the privilege to reign and judge with Jesus, they are still subject to the authority of Christ. All of the saints whom the Lord Jesus will glorify will remain in subjection to him and will be required to worship and serve him for ever and ever. This is precisely why we find the Apostles and the NT writers referring to themselves as slaves or bond-servants of Christ:

“Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,” Romans 1:1

“For am I now seeking the favor of men, or of God? Or am I striving to please men? If I were still trying to please men, I would not be a bond-servant of Christ.” Galatians 1:10

“just as you learned it from Epaphras, our beloved fellow bond-servant, who is a faithful servant of Christ on our behalf,” Colossians 1:7

“James, a bond-servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, To the twelve tribes who are dispersed abroad: Greetings.” James 1:1

“Simon Peter, a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ,” 2 Peter 1:1a

“Jude, a bond-servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, To those who are the called, beloved in God the Father, and kept for Jesus Christ:” Jude 1:1

Believers, on the other hand, do not receive worship from one another since all such worship belongs to God alone.

Fifth, the believers judge the world on behalf of the risen Lord, or as Christ’s agents and representatives. As such, they will not be judging on their own authority, but will be pronouncing Christ’s verdict upon the world.

Sixth, the Holy Scriptures testify that one of the reasons why Christ reigns over the nations and judges the entire creation is so that all will come to the realization that Jesus is the King of kings and Lord of lords.

Seventh, another reason why Christ has been appointed as the sovereign Judge who determines the eternal destiny of every single person on the last day is so that all may come to honor him in the same way that they are supposed to honor the Father.

Eighth, the same God-breathed Scriptures bear witness to the fact that Christ will even judge the believers, in order to determine both their eternal destination and their rankings in heaven.

Ninth, no one judges Jesus, not even the Father. Nor does anyone grant Christ eternal life either as a gift or as a reward for the righteous deeds he has performed. On the contrary, the Scriptures clearly testify that Christ is life itself and that he shall raise the dead at the last day, and grant eternal life to all those who believe in him. This is something which the saints do not and cannot do.

What we will do now is go through the NT books in the order in which they appear so as to provide substantiation for all nine of our propositions. We will also provide some commentary when necessary.


“‘She will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.’ All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet: ‘Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel’ (which means, God with us).” Matthew 1:21-23

Since “his people” refers to all who would believe in Christ, this means that Jesus saves his followers from the consequences of their sinful actions, something which only God can do according to the Holy Bible.

In fact, the angel describes the work of Christ in saving his people from their sins in the same way the OT speaks of Yahweh redeeming Israel!

“O Israel, hope in YHWH! For with YHWH there is steadfast love, and with him is plentiful redemption. And he will redeem Israel from all his iniquities.” Psalm 130:7-8

There is more from Matthew:

“Peter answered him, ‘We have left everything TO FOLLOW YOU! What then will there be for us?’ Jesus said to them, ‘Truly I tell you, at the renewal of all things, when the Son of Man sits on HIS GLORIOUS THRONE, you who have FOLLOWED ME will also sit on TWELVE THRONES, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or wife or children or fields FOR MY SAKE will receive a hundred times as much and will inherit eternal life.’” Matthew 19:27-30

Ironically, greenhorn misquoted this text to show that Christ’s disciples also sit on the throne, singular:

Notice that it is not just the similarity between Jesus (peace be upon him) judging and apostles judging as well! Rather they would- very similarly to Jesus (peace be upon him)-, sit on THE THRONE and judge at least twelve tribesmen. (Capital emphasis ours)

However, the passage says nothing about the Apostles of the risen Lord sitting on the throne, e.g. God’s unique throne, but rather speaks of them sitting on twelve individual thrones.(1)

This is simply a further illustration of greenhorn’s inability to correctly read and properly understand sources.

“Then Jesus said to his disciples, ‘Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me. For whoever wants to save their life will lose it, but whoever loses their life FOR ME will find it. What good will it be for someone to gain the whole world, yet forfeit their soul? Or what can anyone give in exchange for their soul? For the Son of Man is going to come in HIS Father’s glory with his angels, and then he will reward each person according to what they have done.” Matthew 16:24-27

Here, Christ ascribes to himself the very prerogatives and functions which the OT says belong to Yahweh God. For instance, it is Yahweh who will come to reward and recompense everyone for all that they have done:

“See, the Sovereign YHWH comes with power, and he rules with a mighty arm. See, his reward is with him, and his recompense accompanies him. He tends his flock like a shepherd: He gathers the lambs in his arms and carries them close to his heart; he gently leads those that have young.” Isaiah 40:10-11 – cf. 62:11; Psalm 62:12; Proverbs 24:12

This requires and presupposes that God is omniscient and omnipotent, since he must know what everyone has done and must be able to reward a person accordingly. Yet since Christ ascribed this divine function to himself this means that Jesus basically claimed to be both omniscient and omnipotent!

More on this topic later.


“And when Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, ‘Son, your sins are forgiven.’ Now some of the scribes were sitting there, questioning in their hearts, ‘Why does this man speak like that? He is blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone?And immediately Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they thus questioned within themselves, said to them, ‘Why do you question these things in your hearts? Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, “Your sins are forgiven,” or to say, “Rise, take up your bed and walk”? But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins’—he said to the paralytic—‘I say to you, rise, pick up your bed, and go home.’ And he rose and immediately picked up his bed and went out before them all, so that they were all amazed and glorified God, saying, ‘We never saw anything like this!’” Mark 2:5-12

“And then they will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. And then he will send out the angels and gather HIS elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven.” Mark 13:26-27

“Again the high priest asked him, ‘Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?’ And Jesus said, ‘I am, and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.’ And the high priest tore his garments and said, ‘What further witnesses do we need? You have heard his blasphemy. What is your decision?’ And they all condemned him as deserving death.” Mark 14:61b-64

We see that, according to Mark, not only does Jesus have the authority to forgive sins and heal diseases, functions which both the Holy Bible and Quran ascribe to God alone:

“Bless YHWH, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits, who forgives all your iniquity, who heals all your diseases, who redeems your life from the pit, who crowns you with steadfast love and mercy.” Psalm 103:2-4

And those who, when they have committed Fahishah (illegal sexual intercourse etc.) or wronged themselves with evil, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins; - and none can forgive sins but Allah - And do not persist in what (wrong) they have done, while they know. S. 3:135 Hilali-Khan

Christ also knows what individuals are thinking within themselves, which is an ability that the Hebrew Bible says belongs only to Yahweh:

“then hear in heaven your dwelling place and forgive and act and render to each whose heart you know, according to all his ways (for you, you only, know the hearts of all the children of mankind) … If they sin against you—for there is no one who does not sin—and you are angry with them and give them to an enemy, so that they are carried away captive to the land of the enemy, far off or near, yet if they turn their heart in the land to which they have been carried captive, and repent and plead with you in the land of their captors, saying, ‘We have sinned and have acted perversely and wickedly,’ if they repent with all their mind and with all their heart in the land of their enemies, who carried them captive, and pray to you toward their land, which you gave to their fathers, the city that you have chosen, and the house that I have built for your name, then hear in heaven your dwelling place their prayer and their plea, and maintain their cause and forgive your people who have sinned against you, and all their transgressions that they have committed against you, and grant them compassion in the sight of those who carried them captive, that they may have compassion on them.” 1 Kings 8:39, 46-50

Furthermore, by claiming to be the Son of Man Jesus was actually identifying himself with the Divine figure that the prophet Daniel spoke of:

“I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve/worship him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed… And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; HIS kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve/worship and obey HIM.” Daniel 7:13-14, 27

Daniel’s Son of Man is truly an astonishing figure since he not only rules over all the peoples forever, he is also worshiped by all the nations in the same way that God Most High is!

Mark also quotes Jesus saying that he came to lay down his life as a sacrificial ransom to save many:

“For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for MANY.” Mark 10:45 – cf. Matthew 20:28

“And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. And he said to them, ‘This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for MANY.’” Mark 14:23-24

The blessed Apostle Paul says the same thing:

“For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all, which is the testimony given at the proper time.” 1 Timothy 2:5-6

Even more astonishing is what John writes in Revelation:

“After this I looked, and behold, a great multitude THAT NO ONE COULD NUMBER, from every nation, from all tribes and peoples and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands, and crying out with a loud voice, ‘Salvation belongs to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!’ And all the angels were standing around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures, and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, saying, ‘Amen! Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and might be to our God forever and ever! Amen.’ Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, ‘Who are these, clothed in white robes, and from where have they come?’ I said to him, ‘Sir, you know.’ And he said to me, ‘These are the ones coming out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple; and he who sits on the throne will shelter them with his presence. They shall hunger no more, neither thirst anymore; the sun shall not strike them, nor any scorching heat. For the Lamb in the midst of the throne will be their shepherd, and he will guide them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.’” Revelation 7:9-17

Christ’s death redeemed a multitude so vast, that John says no one could number them, so that they may live forever in the presence of the Father and the Son (as well as the Holy Spirit)!

To say that this is amazing would be a wild understatement since the OT Scriptures teach that no person is able to ransom the life of a SINGLE individual from death, since it is too costly, which is why God alone is capable of ransoming a person’s life:

“Truly no man can ransom another, or give to God the price of his life, for the ransom of their life is costly and can never suffice, that he should live on forever and never see the pit… But God will ransom my soul from the power of Sheol, for he will receive me. Selah” Psalm 49:7-9, 15

Jesus could only do this if he is God in essence.


“The seventy-two returned with joy and said, ‘Lord, even the demons submit to us IN YOUR NAME.’ He replied, ‘I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. I HAVE GIVEN YOU AUTHORITY to trample on snakes and scorpions and to overcome all the power of the enemy; nothing will harm you. However, do not rejoice that the spirits submit to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.” Luke 10:17-20

“You are those who have stood by Me in My trials; and just as MY Father has granted Me a kingdom, I GRANT YOU that you may eat and drink at MY TABLE in MY KINGDOM, and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” Luke 22:28-30

Notice that it is Christ’s kingdom which the disciples are allowed to participate in due to the grace given to them by the Lord Jesus.

The Gospel and Epistles of John

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through him, and apart from him nothing came into being that has come into being. In him was life, and the life was the light of men… The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him. He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him. But to all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God. And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.” John 1:1-4, 10-14

“For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him. Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God.” John 3:16-18

“They said to the woman, ‘It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is indeed the Savior of the world.’” John 4:42

“So Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father does, that the Son does likewise. For the Father loves the Son and shows him all that he himself is doing. And greater works than these will he show him, so that you may marvel. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, SO ALSO the Son gives life TO WHOM HE WILL. The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, that all may honor the Son, JUST AS they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him. Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man. Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear HIS [the Son’s] voice and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.’” John 5:19-29

“Jesus said to them, ‘I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst. But I said to you that you have seen me and yet do not believe. All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never cast out. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him who sent me. And this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up on the last day. For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him should have eternal life, AND I WILL RAISE HIM UP ON THE LAST DAY.’ So the Jews grumbled about him, because he said, ‘I am the bread that came down from heaven.’ They said, ‘Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How does he now say, “I have come down from heaven”?’” John 6:35-40

“My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand. I and the Father are one.” John 10:27-30

“Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha said to him, ‘I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the Resurrection and the Life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in me SHALL NEVER DIE. Do you believe this?’ She said to him, ‘Yes, Lord; I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who is coming into the world.’” John 11:23-27

“If anyone hears my words and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world.” John 12:47

“Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me. In my Father’s house are many rooms. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And if I go and prepare a place for you, I WILL COME AGAIN AND WILL TAKE YOU TO MYSELF, THAT WHERE I AM YOU MAY BE ALSO. And you know the way to where I am going.’ Thomas said to him, ‘Lord, we do not know where you are going. How can we know the way?" Jesus said to him, ‘I AM the Way, and the Truth, and the Life. No one comes to the Father except through me.’” John 14:1-6

“The one who does what is sinful is of the devil, because the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the devil’s work.” 1 John 3:8

“In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we have loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins… And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world.”1 John 4:9-10, 14

“for everyone born of God overcomes the world. This is the victory that has overcome the world, even our faith. Who is it that overcomes the world? Only the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God… And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. Whoever has the Son has life; whoever does not have the Son of God does not have life… We know that anyone born of God does not continue to sin; the One who was born of God keeps them safe, and the evil one cannot harm them.” 1 John 5:4-5, 11-12, 18

According to John, Christ is the Divine Agent whom the Father used to bring the entire creation into existence. He is also the One who came into the world to save it and to preserve all who believe in him from ever perishing by giving them eternal life. Christ himself says that he is life itself and the one who raises the dead at the last day, characteristics and functions which even the Quran admits belong only to God.

John further tells us that Christ came to destroy the works of the Devil and to overcome the world, so that his followers could be granted complete victory over Satan and sin.

John also helps us see the difference between Christ’s glorification and exaltation from the glory that believers receive:

“When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, ‘Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over ALL FLESH, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do. And now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you BEFORE THE WORLD EXISTEDThe glory that you have given me I have given to them, that they may be one even as we are one, I in them and you in me, that they may become perfectly one, so that the world may know that you sent me and loved them even as you loved me. Father, I desire that they also, whom you have given me, may be with me where I am, to see my glory that you have given me because you loved me before the foundation of the world.” John 17:1-5, 22-24

Once again, it is Christ who graciously gives his followers eternal life, and confers on them the glory which he received from the Father. It is clear from the context that by glory Jesus is referring to the Father’s heavenly dwelling place. Jesus wants the disciples to be with him in heaven so that they not only enjoy perfect love and fellowship with both the Father and himself, but also witness for themselves how much the Father loves the Son.

However, there is a profound difference between Christ’s glory and the glorification of believers. The exalted status that the believers receive is not something they deserve or possess by right; it is a privilege given to them solely because of the love and grace of the Lord Jesus. Christ, on the hand, receives this glory by virtue of who he is, namely the eternal Word of God. It is a glory which Jesus himself says he already possessed with the Father even before the creation of the world. As such, it is not a glory which is given to him as a favor from God, but one which he possesses intrinsically by virtue of being the unique, Divine Son of God.

In other words, the glory that Jesus receives is one which he deserves, a glorification which belongs to him by Divine right.


“You know the message God sent to the people of Israel, announcing the good news of peace through Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all… He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one whom God appointed as judge of the living and the dead. All the prophets testify about him that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name.” Acts 10:36, 42-43

“The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed; and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead.” Acts 17:30-31

The Pauline Epistles


“If we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we die for the Lord. So, whether we live or die, we belong to the Lord. For this very reason, Christ died and returned to life so that he might be the Lord of both the dead and the living. You, then, why do you judge your brother or sister? Or why do you treat them with contempt? For we will all stand before God’s judgment seat. It is written: “‘As surely as I live,’ says the Lord, “every knee will bow before me; every tongue will acknowledge God.”’ So then, each of us will give an account of ourselves to God.” Romans 14:8-12

1 & 2 Corinthians

“This, then, is how you ought to regard us: as servants of Christ and as those entrusted with the mysteries God has revealed. Now it is required that those who have been given a trust must prove faithful. I care very little if I am judged by you or by any human court; indeed, I do not even judge myself. My conscience is clear, but that does not make me innocent. It is the Lord who judges me. Therefore judge nothing before the appointed time; wait until the Lord comes. He will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will expose the motives of the heart. At that time each will receive their praise from God.” 1 Corinthians 4:1-5

For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each of us may receive what is due us for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad. Since, then, we know what it is to fear the Lord, we try to persuade others. What we are is plain to God, and I hope it is also plain to your conscience.” 2 Corinthians 5:10-11


“and his incomparably great power for us who believe. That power is the same as the mighty strength he exerted when he raised Christ from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, FAR ABOVE ALL RULE AND AUTHORITY, POWER AND DOMINION, AND EVERY NAME THAT IS INVOKED, not only in the present age but also in the one to come. And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him to be head over everything for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills everything in every way.” Ephesians 1:19-23

“For of this you can be sure: No immoral, impure or greedy person—such a person is an idolater—has any inheritance in the kingdom OF CHRIST and of God.” Ephesians 5:5


“Therefore God has highly exalted him (hyper-hypsosen) and bestowed on him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” Philippians 2:9-11

“For our citizenship is in heaven, from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; who will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the body of His glory, by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself.” Philippians 3:20-21


“For he has rescued us from the dominion of darkness and brought us INTO THE KINGDOM OF THE SON HE LOVES, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy. For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross. Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation—if you continue in your faith, established and firm, and do not move from the hope held out in the gospel. This is the gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant.” Colossians 1:13-23

For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, and in Christ you have been brought to fullness. He is the head over every power and authority. In him you were also circumcised with a circumcision not performed by human hands. Your whole self ruled by the flesh was put off when you were circumcised by Christ, having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through your faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. When you were dead in your sins and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made you alive with Christ. He forgave us all our sins, having canceled the charge of our legal indebtedness, which stood against us and condemned us; he has taken it away, nailing it to the cross. And having disarmed the powers and authorities, he made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them by the cross.” Colossians 2:9-15

“Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men, knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward. You are serving the Lord Christ.” Colossians 3:23-24

1 & 2 Thessalonians

“For they themselves report concerning us the kind of reception we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come.” 1 Thessalonians 1:9-10 – cf. 3:11-13

“But we do not want you to be uninformed, brothers, about those who are asleep, that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep. For this we declare to you by a word from the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord. Therefore encourage one another with these words. Now concerning the times and the seasons, brothers, you have no need to have anything written to you. For you yourselves are fully aware that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. While people are saying, ‘There is peace and security,’ then sudden destruction will come upon them as labor pains come upon a pregnant woman, and they will not escape. But you are not in darkness, brothers, for that day to surprise you like a thief… For God has not destined us for wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us so that whether we are awake or asleep we might live with him. Therefore encourage one another and build one another up, just as you are doing.” 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, 5:1-4, 9-11

“This is evidence of the righteous judgment of God, that you may be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are also suffering—since indeed God considers it just to repay with affliction those who afflict you, and to grant relief to you who are afflicted as well as to us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance on those who do not know God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might, when he comes on that day to be glorified in his saints, and to be marveled at among all who have believed, because our testimony to you was believed.” 2 Thessalonians 1:5-10

1 & 2 Timothy

“I charge you in the presence of God, who gives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who in his testimony before Pontius Pilate made the good confession, to keep the commandment unstained and free from reproach until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, which HE will display at the proper time—HE who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, WHO alone has immortality, WHO dwells in unapproachable light, WHOM no one has ever seen or can see. To HIM be honor and eternal dominion. Amen.” 1 Timothy 6:13-16

“In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of HIS APPEARING and HIS KINGDOM, I give you this charge… For I am already being poured out like a drink offering, and the time for my departure is near. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day—and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for HIS APPEARINGThe Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to HIS HEAVENLY KINGDOM. TO HIM BE GLORY FOR EVER AND EVER. Amen.” 2 Timothy 4:6-8, 18

Here is a summary of what Paul taught concerning Christ.

Christ is the beloved Son of God who existed before all creation.

Christ possesses all the fullness of Deity, or that which makes God what he is, and therefore has every essential attribute of God. He does so while also possessing a physical body.

Christ is the Agent and Sustainer of creation, the One through and for whom all things were made.

Christ is the Savior who redeems all believers by his blood and delivers them from God’s wrath which will be unleashed upon the wicked.

Christ has been exalted as Head over all creation, e.g. all creatures are subject to Christ’s sovereign authority.

Christ is King of kings and Lord of lords, the only true Potentate, who alone possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light.

Christ will come again to resurrect the dead and transform the bodies of believers to be like his glorious body by the power which enables Christ to subject everything to himself.

Christ will also judge everyone, including believers, in order to repay them for what they have done and to expose the intentions of their hearts.

Christ will destroy the wicked but will reward believers by allowing them to enter into his eternal kingdom.

All Christians serve the Lord Christ, and are therefore the slaves of Christ.

Every creature will bow down in worship to Christ and confess that he is Lord.

What makes Paul’s statements truly amazing is that he has basically taken OT texts which speak of Yahweh as Creator, Sustainer, and omniscient Judge who alone is to be worshiped by all creation, and applied them all to Christ!

According to the Hebrew Bible, it is Yahweh alone who knows and exposes the intentions of a person’s heart:

“And you, Solomon my son, know the God of your father and serve him with a whole heart and with a willing mind, for YHWH searches all hearts and understands every plan and thought. If you seek him, he will be found by you, but if you forsake him, he will cast you off forever.” 1 Chronicles 28:9

Yahweh alone created and sustains all things, and to him alone shall every knee bow in worship:

“Thus says YHWH, your Redeemer, who formed you from the womb: ‘I am YHWH, who made all things, who ALONE stretched out the heavens, who spread out the earth BY MYSELF,” Isaiah 44:24

“For thus says YHWH, who created the heavens (he is God!), who formed the earth and made it (he established it; he did not create it empty, he formed it to be inhabited!): ‘I am YHWH, and there is no other. I did not speak in secret, in a land of darkness; I did not say to the offspring of Jacob, “Seek me in vain.” I YHWH speak the truth; I declare what is right. Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, you survivors of the nations! They have no knowledge who carry about their wooden idols, and keep on praying to a god that cannot save. Declare and present your case; let them take counsel together! Who told this long ago? Who declared it of old? Was it not I, YHWH? And there is no other god besides me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none besides me. Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other. By myself I have sworn; from my mouth has gone out in righteousness a word that shall not return: “To me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear allegiance.”’” Isaiah 45:18-23 – cf. 42:5; 43:6-7, 20-21; 45:12; 48:13; 51:13


“In the past God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe. The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high (en hypselois). So he became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs… And again, when God brings his firstborn into the world, he says, ‘Let all God’s angels worship him.’ In speaking of the angels he says, ‘He makes his angels spirits, and his servants flames of fire.’ … But about the Son he says, ‘Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.’” Hebrews 1:1-4, 6-9

“But we do see Jesus, who was made lower than the angels for a little while, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. In bringing many sons and daughters to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through what he suffered. Both the one who makes people holy and those who are made holy are of the same family. So Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers and sisters… Since the children have flesh and blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might break the power of him who holds the power of death—that is, the devil—and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by their fear of death. For surely it is not angels he helps, but Abraham’s descendants. For this reason he had to be made like them, fully human in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people.” Hebrews 2:9-11, 14-18

Notice how Hebrews describes Christ’s heavenly exaltation and status in the same way that the OT writers portray Yahweh’s enthronement.

For example, the OT says it is Yahweh whose throne is in heaven:

“YHWH is in his holy temple; YHWH’s throne is in heaven; his eyes see, his eyelids test the children of man.” Psalm 11:4

YHWH has established his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all.” Psalm 103:19

It is Yahweh who is said to reign on high,

Who is as the Lord our God who dwells in the high places (en hypselois), and [yet] looks upon the low things in heaven, and on the earth? Psalm 112[Eng.113]:5-6 LXX

Yahweh is also depicted as being greatly exalted above all the angels who are commanded to worship him:

Let all that worship graven images be ashamed, who boast of their idols; worship him, all you his angelsFor you are the Lord most high (hypsistos) over all the earth; you are greatly exalted (hyper-hypsothes) above all gods. Psalm 96[Eng. 97]:7, 9 LXX

And yet Hebrews ascribes all of this to the Lord Jesus!

Hebrews does something even more amazing. This inspired writing takes the following Psalm, which glorifies Yahweh for being the unchanging Creator and Sustainer of all things,

“Of old you laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will change them like a robe, and they will pass away, but you are the same, and your years have no end.” Psalm102:24-27 LXX

And applies it to Christ!

But of the Son he [the Father] says… You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.’” Hebrews 1:8a, 10-12

The author of Hebrews has God the Father citing this particular Psalm in relation to Christ, as a way of glorifying his beloved Son for being the immutable Lord that created and sustains the heavens and the earth!

1 & 2 Peter

“and this water symbolizes baptism that now saves you also—not the removal of dirt from the body but the pledge of a clear conscience toward God. It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who has gone into heaven and is at God’s right hand—with angels, authorities and powers IN SUBMISSION TO HIM.” 1 Peter 3:21-22

“… To those who have obtained a faith of equal standing with ours by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ… Therefore, my brothers and sisters, make every effort to confirm your calling and election. For if you do these things, you will never stumble, and you will receive a rich welcome INTO THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST.” 2 Peter 1:10-11

“But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.” 2 Peter 3:18


“and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood, AND HAS MADE US TO BE A KINGDOM and priests to serve his God and Father—TO HIM BE GLORY AND POWER FOR EVER AND EVER! Amen.” Revelation 1:5-6

“And when he had taken it, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb. Each one had a harp and they were holding golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of God’s people. And they sang a new song, saying: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because you were slain, and with your blood you purchased for God persons from every tribe and language and people and nation. YOU HAVE MADE THEM TO BE A KINGDOM and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth.” Revelation 5:8-10

“They will wage war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will triumph over them BECAUSE HE IS LORD OF LORDS AND KING OF KINGS—and with him will be his called, chosen and faithful followers.” Revelation 17:14 – cf. 19:16

I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. They had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years. (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy are those who share in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be PRIESTS of God AND OF CHRIST and will reign with him for a thousand years.” Revelation 20:4-6

“Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the THRONE of God AND OF THE LAMB down the middle of the great street of the city. On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. No longer will there be any curse. The THRONE of God AND OF THE LAMB will be in the city, and HIS SERVANTS will serve HIM.” Revelation 22:1-4

These references make it abundantly clear that it is Christ who gives believers the right to reign and judge with him. Yet these verses also show that Jesus will continue to reign over all of them as King of kings and Lord of lords. Thus, the believers do not share parity of status with the Father or the Son, but will remain subject to them forever.

In fact, as can be seen from the above passages, believers will continue to function as priests serving and worshiping both God and Christ.

Again, this is the type of worship which the OT reserves for Yahweh alone.

For instance, the prophets spoke of all the nations turning to Yahweh and worshiping him in acknowledgment of his being their King:

“All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn unto YHWH; And all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before you. For the kingdom is YHWH's; And he is the ruler over the nations.” Psalm 22:27-28

“For YHWH, the Most High, is to be feared, a great king over all the earth… Sing praises to God, sing praises! Sing praises to our King, sing praises! For God is the King of all the earth; sing praises with a psalm! God reigns over the nations; God sits on his holy throne.” Psalm 47:2, 6-8

“‘And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from sabbath to sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before me,’ says YHWH.” Isaiah 66:23

And YHWH will be king over all the earth. On that day YHWH will be one and his name one… Then everyone who survives of all the nations that have come against Jerusalem shall go up year after year to worship the King, YHWH of hosts, and to keep the Feast of Booths. And if any of the families of the earth do not go up to Jerusalem to worship the King, YHWH of hosts, there will be no rain on them.” Zechariah 14:9, 16-17

That’s not all. Revelation goes so far as to claim that every single creature will eventually worship both God and Christ together!

“Then I looked and heard the voice of many angels, numbering thousands upon thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand. They encircled the throne and the living creatures and the elders. In a loud voice they were saying: ‘Worthy is the Lamb, who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and praise!’ Then I heard EVERY CREATURE in heaven and on earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all that is in them, saying: ‘To him who sits on the throne AND TO THE LAMB be praise and honor and glory and power, for ever and ever!’ The four living creatures said, ‘Amen,’ and the elders fell down and worshiped.” Revelation 5:11-14

This specific reference shows that Jesus is not a creature since, if he were, we would then expect him to be part of the entire creation worshiping God. Instead, every created thing worships Jesus in the same way that they worship God, thereby perfectly fulfilling the Father’s desire that all honor the Son as they honor him! (Cf. John 5:22-23.)

Now, contrast the worship which Jesus accepts (in fact, demands) with the disciples’ express reluctance and refusal to receive any kind of worship:

“When Peter entered, Cornelius met him, and fell at his feet and worshiped him. But Peter raised him up, saying, “Stand up; I too am just a man.” Acts 10:25-26


“At Lystra a man was sitting who had no strength in his feet, lame from his mother’s womb, who had never walked. This man was listening to Paul as he spoke, who, when he had fixed his gaze on him and had seen that he had faith to be made well, said with a loud voice, ‘Stand upright on your feet.’ And he leaped up and began to walk. When the crowds saw what Paul had done, they raised their voice, saying in the Lycaonian language, ‘The gods have become like men and have come down to us.’ And they began calling Barnabas, Zeus, and Paul, Hermes, because he was the chief speaker. The priest of Zeus, whose temple was just outside the city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and wanted to offer sacrifice with the crowds. But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of it, they tore their robes and rushed out into the crowd, crying out and saying, ‘Men, why are you doing these things? We are also men of the same nature as you, and preach the gospel to you that you should turn from these vain things to a living God, WHO MADE THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH AND THE SEA AND ALL THAT IS IN THEM.’” Acts 14:8-15

Revelation further testifies that Jesus is the omniscient Son who will repay every single individual for everything s/he has said or done. This also includes the believers.

The Lord Jesus is even described as being the First and the Last who died and came back to life again.

“To the angel of the church in Thyatira write: These are the words of the Son of God, whose eyes are like blazing fire and whose feet are like burnished bronze. I know your deeds, your love and faith, your service and perseverance, and that you are now doing more than you did at first. Nevertheless, I have this against you: You tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophet. By her teaching she misleads MY servants into sexual immorality and the eating of food sacrificed to idols… I will strike her children dead. Then all the churches will know that I AM HE who searches hearts and minds, and I will repay each of you according to your deeds.” Revelation 2:18-20, 23

Look, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to each person according to what they have done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End… I, JESUS, have sent MY angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.’ … He who testifies to these things says, ‘Yes, I am coming soon.’ Amen. COME, LORD JESUS. The grace of the Lord Jesus be with God’s people. Amen.” Revelation 22:12-13, 16, 20

“When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. Then he placed his right hand on me and said: ‘Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last. I am the Living One; I WAS DEAD, and now look, I am alive for ever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades.’” Revelation 1:17-18 – cf. 2:8

This, once again, proves that Jesus is God since, according to the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh alone searches the hearts and minds of everyone in order to recompense them for all that they have done:

“I YHWH search the heart and examine the mind, to reward each person according to their conduct, according to what their deeds deserve.” Jeremiah 17:10 – cf. 11:20; 29:23

Yahweh is also said to be the Lord of lords, as well as the First and the Last:

“For YHWH your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality and accepts no bribes.” Deuteronomy 10:17

“Give thanks to the Lord of lords: His love endures forever.” Psalm 136:3

“Thus says YHWH, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, YHWH of hosts: ‘I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.’” Isaiah 44:6

“For my own sake, for my own sake, I do it, for how should my name be profaned? My glory I will not give to another. Listen to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called! I am he; I am the first, and I am the last.” Isaiah 48:11-12

The Quran itself testifies that the title First and Last is a name which belongs to God alone:

He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward; He has knowledge of everything. S. 57:3

Concluding Remarks

Our analysis has shown that, contrary to the assertions of greenhorn, the believers’ exaltation does not make them gods, nor does it disprove the Deity of Christ.

The believers will judge the world on behalf of Christ, being his agents who pass on Christ’s verdict upon the wicked. Believers also rule because of what Christ has done for them out of his love and compassion. It is Christ who has made all believers a kingdom of priests to serve both him and God forever.

Hence, the kingdom which the believers receive is Christ’s own kingdom which he graciously shares with those whom he loves and which he has redeemed by his blood.

What Christ has basically done is to restore mankind to exercise the dominion which God intended them to have from the very beginning of man's creation:

“Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’ So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. And God blessed them. And God said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.’” Genesis 1:26-28 – cf. Psalm 8:3-7

Notice how God gives mankind dominion as part of making them in his image, i.e. just as God rules over everything, man also rules as his representative over the physical creation, without this meaning that man is God and without diminishing God's rule by it.

Therefore, since Christ brought redemption and restoration, it is to be expected that his followers will also receive a certain measure of "rulership" -- just as God initially intended it.

Hence, what the NT says about Christ granting his followers the right to rule over the earth and judge the wicked is not completely surprising. This teaching is found right there in the Holy Scriptures from the very beginning.

Christ, however, rules and judges as the Father’s beloved Son and sovereign Lord of all creation.

In other words, the reason the Father has exalted Jesus above all creation and has appointed him to be the Judge of all the earth is so that everyone comes to acknowledge that Christ is Yahweh God incarnate. The Father wants all creation to know that Christ will determine the eternal fate of every single individual so that they may all come to the realization that Jesus isn’t simply God’s agent. Rather, Christ is actually Yahweh God who became flesh for the redemption of mankind, the One for whom everything and everyone exists.

This is precisely why the NT writers took OT texts speaking of Yahweh and adopted OT language which referred to Yahweh’s role as the Judge and the Savior of all the world, and ascribed all of that to Christ. The reason why the inspired authors did this is because they wanted their readers to know and believe that Jesus Christ is Yahweh Incarnate, the very God that the OT prophets said would come to judge the wicked and deliver his people from destruction.

Yet we do not find the NT doing this for the disciples or believers, e.g. the NT authors never take OT texts referring to Yahweh’s exclusive functions or attributes and apply them to the followers of Jesus.

Therefore, to compare Jesus’ status with that of the believers is to compare apples and oranges, or more like apples and pineapples!

Now that we have thoroughly addressed greenhorn’s smokescreens and false comparisons, it is time for us to turn the tables on him and his god.


(1) Nor is this the only place where greenhorn badly distorts the statements of others:

Another observable point is that Barnes states that “Christians” would be ‘exalted’ to the “RIGHT HAND of the Judge”. We often read many claims from Christian apologists that Jesus (peace be upon him) is God because he would be exalted on the right hand of God (Acts 7:55, Romans 8:34) nevertheless, even “Christians” would be “exalted to the right hand of the Judge”. Therefore, either Jesus (peace be upon him) is not a deity or even lay “Christians” are also Gods in Christianity.

And it is not just commentator Barnes, noted Bible commentator Matthew Henry also claims that believers will have a position in the right hand of God:

“Those are the given in common to all believers. The glory of being in covenant with the Father, and accepted of him,of being laid on his bosom, AND DESIGNED FOR A PLACE IN HIS RIGHT HAND, was the glory which the Father gave to the Redeemer, and he has confirmed it to the redeemed.” (Henry’s commentary, John 17:20-23. Bold, Italics, Capital and Underline emphasize ours)

Noted Christians like Johnson and Mc Garvey acceded to the fact that there was some sort of partnership or in their words, “close association” between Jesus (peace be upon him) and saints:

“The saints shall judge the world, because of THEIR UNION WITH THE MESSIAH, to whom all judgment is committed” (Source. Capital, Bold and Italics emphasize ours)


“The saints will only participate AS MYSTICALLY UNITED WITH CHRIST the judge.” (Source, Capital, Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

Anybody united, associated and sharing in God’s divine work should definitely partner his God head as well.

In the first place, no informed Christian apologist argues that Jesus is God simply because he has been exalted to the right hand of God. Rather, it is what Jesus does from there that shows that he is God. The Father exalted Christ to sit with him on the throne in order to reign over all creation as Lord of all.

Secondly, it is clear from McGarvey’s statements what he meant by our mystical union with the Lord Jesus. According to the Scriptures, the Holy Spirit unites all believers to Christ in love and fellowship, thereby forming his spiritual body which is called the Church. As such, Christ graciously allows the members of his spiritual body to dwell in his glorious presence in order to experience his perfect love and joy which words cannot describe.

Moreover, our spiritual union with Christ also implies that we act as Christ’s agents, his ambassadors so to speak, through whom the risen Lord accomplishes his will and proclaims his message. This is precisely why the exalted Lord permits us to judge the world on his behalf, since as Christ’s representatives we will pronounce Christ’s verdict upon the disbelievers for rejecting him and his free offer of salvation (cf. Psalm 16:11; Matthew 10:40; Luke 10:16-17; John 13:20; 17:18; 20:21-23; Romans 8:9-17; 1 Corinthians 2:9-16; 3:16-17; 6:16-20; 12:3-31; 2 Corinthians 5:19-20; 13:3, 5, 10; Ephesians 2:18-22; 3:16-19; 5:23, 25-33; Colossians 1:26-27: 3:11).

Hence, our union or “association” is one of intimate love and communion with the Lord, and has nothing to do with sharing in God’s exclusive divine attributes. This is simply greenhorn’s distorted reading of the Holy Scriptures.