Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

The Early Post-NT Witness to the Trinity and Deity of Christ

Sam Shamoun

The following quotations are all taken from sources that were written either by those who knew the Apostles of Christ personally or their followers after them. These citations give us an unbroken chain of transmission to the Apostles of our risen Lord and demonstrate that the true followers of Jesus’ disciples all believed and affirmed the Trinitarian nature of God, the absolute Deity of Christ, his death for our sins, and his glorious physical bodily resurrection.

We will try to keep our comments to a minimum since the quotations speak for themselves.

Didache (c. 65-120 AD)

But with respect to baptism, baptize as follows. Having said all things in advance, baptize in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, in running water. But if you do not have running water, baptize in some other water. And if you cannot baptize in cold water, use warm. But if you have neither, pour water on the head three times in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. 7:1-3

And do not keep your fasts with the hypocrites. For they fast on the second and fifth days of the week, but you should fast on the fourth and sixth days. Nor should you pray like the hypocrites, but as the Lord hath commanded in his gospel, you should pray as follows: “Our Father in heaven, may your name be holy. Your kingdom come. Your will be done as in heaven so on earth. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debt, as we also forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil. For the power and the glory are yours for ever.” Pray like this three times a day. 8:1-3

But concerning the Eucharist, you shall give thanks as follows. First, with respect to the cup: “We thank you, our Father, for the holy vine of David your child, which you have made known unto us through Jesus your child. To you be the glory forever.” And concerning the broken bread: “We thank you, our Father, for the life and knowledge which you have made known unto us through Jesus your child. To you be the glory forever. As this broken bread was once scattered on the mountains, and after it had been brought together became one, so may your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into your kingdom. For the glory and the power is yours through Jesus Christ forever.” And let none eat or drink of your Eucharist unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord. For also the Lord has said about this, “Do not give what is holy to the dogs.” 9:1-5

And when you have had enough to eat, you should give thanks as follows: “We thank you, Holy Father, for your holy name, which you have made reside in our hearts, and for the knowledge, faith, and immortality which you have made known to us through Jesus your child. To you be the glory forever. You, Almighty Master, created all things for the sake of your name, and gave both food and drink to men for their enjoyment, that they might give thanks to you. And you graciously provided us with spiritual food and drink, and eternal life through your child. Above all we thank you because you are powerful. To you be the glory forever. Remember your Church, Lord, to save it from every evil, and to perfect it in your love. And gather it together from the four winds into your kingdom which you prepared for it. For yours is the power and the glory for ever. May grace come and this world pass away. Hosanna to the Son of David. If any one is holy let him come; if any one is not, let him repent. Maranatha. Amen.” 10:1-6

Be watchful for your life. Do not let your lamps be extinguished or your robes be loosed; but be prepared. For you do not know the hour when our Lord is coming. Gathered together frequently, seeking what is suitable for your souls; for the whole time of your faith shall profit you not, unless you be found perfect in the last time. For in the last days false prophets and seducers shall be multiplied, and the sheep shall be turned into wolves, and love shall be turned into hate; and because iniquity abound they shall hate each other, and persecute each other, and deliver each other up; and then shall the Deceiver of the world appear as the Son of God, and shall do signs and wonders, and the earth shall be delivered into his hands; and he shall do unlawful things, such as have never happened since the beginning of the world. Then shall the creation of man come to the fiery trial of proof, and many shall be offended and shall perish; but they who remain in their faith shall be saved by the rock of offence itself. And then shall appear the signs of the truth; first the sign of the appearance in heaven, then the sign of the sound of the trumpet, and thirdly the resurrection of the dead. But not all of dead, for as it has been said, “The Lord shall come and all his saints with him.” Then shall the world behold the Lord coming on the clouds of heaven.” 16:1-8 (Italic emphasis ours)


In this document reference is made to the words and commands of the Lord Jesus that are found in his Gospel which he issued to his disciples. The quotations that follow indicate that the Gospel which the author(s) had in mind was Matthew. The document also refers to the Lord’s Supper, Lord’s Prayer, and Trinitarian baptism, e.g., baptism which is to be done in the singular name of the three distinct Divine Persons.

Christ is spoken of as God’s Son and child, and is repeatedly called Lord. In one particular context an OT quote is directly applied to Christ and his second coming,

Be watchful for your life. Do not let your lamps be extinguished or your robes be loosed; but be prepared. For you do not know the hour when our Lord is coming… But not all of dead, for as it has been said, “The Lord shall come and all his saints with him.” Then shall the world behold the Lord coming on the clouds of heaven.” 16:1, 7-8

The reference to the Lord coming with all his saints is a direct quotation from the following OT text:

“Lo, a day shall come for Yahweh when the spoils shall be divided in your midst. And I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem for battle: the city shall be taken, houses plundered, women ravished; half of the city shall go into exile, but the rest of the people shall not be removed from the city. Then Yahweh shall go forth and fight against those nations, fighting as on a day of battle. That day HIS FEET shall rest upon the Mount of Olives, which is opposite Jerusalem to the east. The Mount of Olives shall be cleft in two from east to west by a very deep valley, and half of the mountain shall move to the north and half of it to the south. And the valley of Yahweh mountain shall be filled up when the valley of those two mountains reaches its edge; it shall be filled up as it was filled up by the earthquake in the days of King Uzziah of Judah. Then Yahweh, my God, shall come, and all his holy ones with him. On that day there shall no longer be cold or frost.” Zechariah 14:1-6

What makes this particular citation even more amazing is that the New Testament teaches that it is Jesus himself who will descend upon the Mount of Olives with all his saints!

“When he had said this, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him from their sight. While they were looking intently at the sky as he was going, suddenly two men dressed in white garments stood beside them. They said, ‘Men of Galilee, why are you standing there looking at the sky? This Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven will return in the same way as you have seen him going into heaven.’ Then they returned to Jerusalem FROM THE MOUNT CALLED OLIVET, which is near Jerusalem, a sabbath day's journey away.” Acts 1:9-12

According to the men dressed in white Jesus will return the same way he went into heaven, i.e., Christ will descend upon the Mount of Olives since this is the place from which he ascended into heaven. And:

“Now may God himself, our Father, and our Lord Jesus direct our way to you, and may the Lord make you increase and abound in love for one another and for all, just as we have for you, so as to strengthen your hearts, to be blameless in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his holy ones. (Amen.)” 1 Thessalonians 3:11-13

This shows that the inspired NT writers and the author(s) of the Didache believed that when Zechariah saw Yahweh’s feet touch the Mount of Olives he was actually seeing Christ descending from heaven in his resurrected, glorified physical body!

Moreover, in referring to the Lord coming on the clouds of heaven the Didache is also identifying Jesus with the Divine Son of Man whom the prophet Daniel said is worshiped by all nations:

“In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a Son of Man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.” Daniel 7:13-14

Hence, the Didache calls Jesus the Son of God, identifies him with the Divine Son of Man who is worshiped by all nations as he rules over them forever, affirms that he shares the one Divine name of the Father and the Holy Spirit, and refers to him as Yahweh!

The readers can examine the Didache for themselves at the following links:

Polycarp (69-155 AD)


Polycarp, and the presbyters with him, to the Church of God sojourning at Philippi: Mercy to you, and peace from God Almighty, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, our Saviour, be multiplied.

Chapter 1. Praise of the Philippians

I have greatly rejoiced with you in our Lord Jesus Christ, because you have followed the example of true love [as displayed by God], and have accompanied, as became you, those who were bound in chains, the fitting ornaments of saints, and which are indeed the diadems of the true elect of God and our Lord; and because the strong root of your faith, spoken of in days long gone by, endures even until now, and brings forth fruit to our Lord Jesus Christ, who for our sins suffered even unto death, [but] whom God raised from the dead, having loosed the bands of the grave. In whom, though now you see Him not, you believe, and believing, rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory; into which joy many desire to enter, knowing that by grace you are saved, not of works, but by the will of God through Jesus Christ.

Chapter 6. The duties of presbyters and others

And let the presbyters be compassionate and merciful to all, bringing back those that wander, visiting all the sick, and not neglecting the widow, the orphan, or the poor, but always providing for that which is becoming in the sight of God and man; abstaining from all wrath, respect of persons, and unjust judgment; keeping far off from all covetousness, not quickly crediting [an evil report] against any one, not severe in judgment, as knowing that we are all under a debt of sin. If then we entreat the Lord to forgive us, we ought also ourselves to forgive; for we are before the eyes of OUR LORD AND GOD (tou kyriou kai theou), and we must all appear at the judgment-seat OF CHRIST, and must every one give an account of himself. Let us then serve Him in fear, and with all reverence, even as He Himself has commanded us, and as the apostles who preached the Gospel unto us, and the prophets who proclaimed beforehand the coming of the Lord [have alike taught us]. Let us be zealous in the pursuit of that which is good, keeping ourselves from causes of offense, from false brethren, and from those who in hypocrisy bear the name of the Lord, and draw away vain men into error. (Epistle to the Philippians; italic emphasis ours)

“Therefore prepare for action and serve (douleusate) God in fear” and truth, leaving behind the empty and meaningless talk and the error of the crowd, and “believing in him who raised” our Lord Jesus Christ “from the dead and gave him glory” and a throne at his right hand; to whom all things in heaven and on earth were subjected, WHOM EVERY BREATHING CREATURE SERVES (latreuei), who is coming as “Judge of the living and the dead,” for whose blood God will hold responsible those who disobey him. (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, Chapter 2, The Apostolic Fathers, Greek Texts And English Translations, edited and revised by Michael W. Holmes [Baker Books, Grand Rapids, MI 1999], pp. 207, 209; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Clement of Rome (d. 100 AD)

Chapter 16. Christ as an Example of Humility.

For Christ is of those who are humble-minded, and not of those who exalt themselves over His flock. Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Sceptre of the majesty of God, did not come in the pomp of pride or arrogance, although He might have done so, but in a lowly condition, as the Holy Spirit had declared regarding Him. For He says

Chapter 21. Let Us Obey God, and Not the Authors of Sedition.

Take heed, beloved, lest His many kindnesses lead to the condemnation of us all. [For thus it must be] unless we walk worthy of Him, and with one mind do those things which are good and well-pleasing in His sight. For [the Scripture] says in a certain place, “The Spirit of the Lord is a candle searching the secret parts of the belly.” Let us reflect how near He is, and that none of the thoughts or reasonings in which we engage are hid from Him. It is right, therefore, that we should not leave the post which His will has assigned us. Let us rather offend those men who are foolish, and inconsiderate, and lifted up, and who glory in the pride of their speech, than [offend] God. Let us reverence the Lord Jesus Christ, whose blood was given for us; let us esteem those who have the rule over us; let us honour the aged among us; let us train up the young men in the fear of God; let us direct our wives to that which is good. Let them exhibit the lovely habit of purity [in all their conduct]; let them show forth the sincere disposition of meekness; let them make manifest the command which they have of their tongue, by their manner of speaking; let them display their love, not by preferring one to another, but by showing equal affection to all that piously fear God. Let your children be partakers of true Christian training; let them learn of how great avail humility is with God — how much the spirit of pure affection can prevail with Him — how excellent and great His fear is, and how it saves all those who walk in it with a pure mind. For He is a Searcher of the thoughts and desires [of the heart]: His breath is in us; and when He pleases, He will take it away.

Chapter 23. Be Humble, and Believe that Christ Will Come Again.

The all-merciful and beneficent Father has bowels [of compassion] towards those that fear Him, and kindly and lovingly bestows His favours upon those who come to Him with a simple mind. Wherefore let us not be double-minded; neither let our soul be lifted up on account of His exceedingly great and glorious gifts. Far from us be that which is written, “Wretched are they who are of a double mind, and of a doubting heart; who say, These things we have heard even in the times of our fathers; but, behold, we have grown old, and none of them has happened unto us;” You foolish ones! compare yourselves to a tree; take [for instance] the vine. First of all, it sheds its leaves, then it buds, next it puts forth leaves, and then it flowers; after that comes the sour grape, and then follows the ripened fruit. You perceive how in a little time the fruit of a tree comes to maturity. Of a truth, soon and suddenly shall His will be accomplished, as the Scripture also bears witness, saying, “Speedily will He come, and will not tarry;” and, “THE LORD SHALL SUDDENLY COME TO HIS TEMPLE, EVEN THE HOLY ONE, FOR WHOM YOU LOOK.

Chapter 49. The Praise of Love.

Let him who has love in Christ keep the commandments of Christ. Who can describe the [blessed] bond of the love of God? What man is able to tell the excellence of its beauty, as it ought to be told? The height to which love exalts is unspeakable. Love unites us to God. Love covers a multitude of sins. Love bears all things, is long-suffering in all things. There is nothing base, nothing arrogant in love. Love admits of no schisms: love gives rise to no seditions: love does all things in harmony. By love have all the elect of God been made perfect; without love nothing is well-pleasing to God. In love has the Lord taken us to Himself. On account of the love He bore us, Jesus Christ our Lord gave His blood for us by the will of God; His flesh for our flesh, and His soul for our souls.

Chapter 58. Submission the Precursor of Salvation.

Let us, therefore, flee from the warning threats pronounced by Wisdom on the disobedient, and yield submission to His all-holy and glorious name, that we may stay our trust upon the most hallowed name of His majesty. Receive our counsel, and you shall be without repentance. For, as God lives, and as the Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit live—both the faith and hope of the elect, he who in lowliness of mind, with instant gentleness, and without repentance has observed the ordinances and appointments given by God— the same shall obtain a place and name in the number of those who are being saved through Jesus Christ, through whom is glory to Him for ever and ever. Amen.

Chapter 64. Blessings Sought for All that Call Upon God.

May God, who sees all things, and who is the Ruler of all spirits and the Lord of all flesh — who chose our Lord Jesus Christ and us through Him to be a peculiar people — grant to every soul that calls upon His glorious and holy name, faith, fear, peace, patience, long-suffering, self-control, purity, and sobriety, to the well-pleasing of His name, through our High Priest and Protector, Jesus Christ, by whom be to Him glory, and majesty, and power, and honour, both now and for evermore. Amen. (Epistle to the Corinthians; capital and italic emphasis ours)


In chapter 23 Clement applied the words of Malachi 3:1 to Jesus' second coming:

"'See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Then suddenly the Lord (ha adon) you are seeking will come to his temple; the messenger of the covenant, whom you desire, will come," says the LORD of hosts."

In the OT Scriptures the words ha adon are never used for anyone other than Yahweh. That the Lord here is Yahweh God is further seen by the fact that the verse says that he will be coming to his temple. According to the Hebrew Bible the temple was built for and belongs to Yahweh. Thus, by applying this particular quote to the return of Christ from heaven Clement has basically identified Jesus as Yahweh God!


Ignatius of Antioch (107-112 AD)

Chapter 6. Preserve harmony

Since therefore I have, in the persons before mentioned, beheld the whole multitude of you in faith and love, I exhort you to study to do all things with a divine harmony, while your bishop presides in the place of God, and your presbyters in the place of the assembly of the apostles, along with your deacons, who are most dear to me, and are entrusted with the ministry of Jesus Christ, who was with the Father BEFORE THE BEGINNING OF TIME, and in the end was revealed. Do all then, imitating the same divine conduct, pay respect to one another, and let no one look upon his neighbour after the flesh, but continually love each other in Jesus Christ. Let nothing exist among you that may divide you; but be united with your bishop, and those that preside over you, as a type and evidence of your immortality. (The Epistle to the Magnesians; capital and italic emphasis ours)

Chapter 3. Exhortations

Let not those who seem worthy of credit, but teach strange doctrines, fill you with apprehension. Stand firm, as does an anvil which is beaten. It is the part of a noble athlete to be wounded, and yet to conquer. And especially, we ought to bear all things for the sake of God, that He also may bear with us. Be ever becoming more zealous than what you are. Weigh carefully the times. Look for Him who is ABOVE ALL TIME,ETERNAL AND INVISIBLE, yet who became visible for our sakes; impalpable and impassible, yet who became passable on our account; and who in every kind of way suffered for our sakes. (The Epistle to Polycarp; capital and italic emphasis ours)


Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly most happy, being blessed in the greatness and fullness of God the Father, and predestinated before the beginning of time, that it should be always for an enduring and unchangeable glory, being united and elected through the true passion by the will of the Father, and Jesus Christ, OUR GOD: Abundant happiness through Jesus Christ, and His undefiled grace…

Chapter 1. Praise of the Ephesians

I have become acquainted with your name, much-beloved in God, which you have acquired by the habit of righteousness, according to the faith and love in Jesus Christ our Saviour. Being the followers of God, and stirring up yourselves by THE BLOOD OF GOD, you have perfectly accomplished the work which was beseeming to you. For, on hearing that I came bound from Syria for the common name and hope, trusting through your prayers to be permitted to fight with beasts at Rome, that so by martyrdom I may indeed become the disciples of Him who gave Himself for us, an offering and sacrifice to God, [you hastened to see me ]. I received, therefore, your whole multitude in the name of God, through Onesimus, a man of inexpressible love, and your bishop in the flesh, whom I pray you by Jesus Christ to love, and that you would all seek to be like him. And blessed be He who has granted unto you, being worthy, to obtain such an excellent bishop…

Chapter 7. Beware of false teachers

For some are in the habit of carrying about the name of Jesus Christ in wicked guile, while yet they practise things unworthy of God, whom you must flee as you would wild beasts. For they are ravening dogs, who bite secretly, against whom you must be on your guard, inasmuch as they are men who can scarcely be cured. There is one Physician who is possessed both of flesh and spirit; both made AND NOTE MADE (gennetos kai agennetos – “originate and unoriginate,” “created and uncreated, “born and unborn”); GOD EXISTING IN FLESH; true life in death; both of Mary and of God; first passible and then impassible— even Jesus Christ our Lord

Chapter 9. You have given no heed to false teachers

Nevertheless, I have heard of some who have passed on from this to you, having false doctrine, whom you did not allow to sow among you, but stopped your ears, that you might not receive those things which were sown by them, as being stones of the temple of the Father, prepared for the building of God the Father, and drawn up on high by the instrument of Jesus Christ, which is the cross, making use of the Holy Spirit as a rope, while your faith was the means by which you ascended, and your love the way which led up to God. You, therefore, as well as all your fellow-travellers, are God-bearers, temple-bearers, Christ-bearers, bearers of holiness, adorned in all respects with the commandments of Jesus Christ, in whom also I exult that I have been thought worthy, by means of this Epistle, to converse and rejoice with you, because with respect to your Christian life you love nothing but God only.

Chapter 18. The glory of the cross

Let my spirit be counted as nothing for the sake of the cross, which is a stumbling-block to those that do not believe, but to us salvation and life eternal. Where is the wise man? Where the disputer? Where is the boasting of those who are styled prudent? For OUR GOD, JESUS CHRIST, was, according to the appointment of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Spirit. He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water.

Chapter 19. Three celebrated mysteries

Now the virginity of Mary was hidden from the prince of this world, as was also her offspring, and the death of the Lord; three mysteries of renown, which were wrought in silence by God. How, then, was He manifested to the world? A star shone forth in heaven above all the other stars, the light of which was inexpressible, while its novelty struck men with astonishment. And all the rest of the stars, with the sun and moon, formed a chorus to this star, and its light was exceedingly great above them all. And there was agitation felt as to whence this new spectacle came, so unlike to everything else [in the heavens]. Hence every kind of magic was destroyed, and every bond of wickedness disappeared; ignorance was removed, and the old kingdom abolished, God Himself being manifested in human form for the renewal of eternal life. And now that took a beginning which had been prepared by God. Henceforth all things were in a state of tumult, because He meditated the abolition of death.

Chapter 20. Promise of another letter

If Jesus Christ shall graciously permit me through your prayers, and if it be His will, I shall, in a second little work which I will write to you, make further manifest to you [the nature of] the dispensation of which I have begun [to treat], with respect to the new man, Jesus Christ, in His faith and in His love, in His suffering and in His resurrection. Especially [will I do this ] if the Lord make known to me that you come together man by man in common through grace, individually, in one faith, and in Jesus Christ, who was of the seed of David according to the flesh, being both the Son of man and the Son of God, so that you obey the bishop and the presbytery with an undivided mind, breaking one and the same bread, which is the medicine of immortality, and the antidote to prevent us from dying, but [which causes] that we should live for ever in Jesus Christ. (The Epistle to the Ephesians; capital and italic emphasis ours)


Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which has obtained mercy, through the majesty of the Most High Father, and Jesus Christ, His only-begotten Son; the Church which is beloved and enlightened by the will of Him that wills all things which are according to the love of Jesus Christ OUR GOD, which also presides in the place of the region of the Romans, worthy of God, worthy of honour, worthy of the highest happiness, worthy of praise, worthy of obtaining her every desire, worthy of being deemed holy, and which presides over love, is named from Christ, and from the Father, which I also salute in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father: to those who are united, both according to the flesh and spirit, to every one of His commandments; who are filled inseparably with the grace of God, and are purified from every strange taint, [I wish] abundance of happiness unblameably, in Jesus Christ OUR GOD.

Chapter 3. Pray rather that I may attain to martyrdom

You have never envied any one; you have taught others. Now I desire that those things may be confirmed [by your conduct], which in your instructions you enjoin [on others]. Only request in my behalf both inward and outward strength, that I may not only speak, but [truly] will; and that I may not merely be called a Christian, but really be found to be one. For if I be truly found [a Christian], I may also be called one, and be then deemed faithful, when I shall no longer appear to the world. Nothing visible is eternal. For the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal. For OUR GOD, Jesus Christ, now that He is with/in the Father, is all the more revealed [in His glory]. Christianity is not a thing of silence only, but also of [manifest] greatness. (The Epistle to the Romans; bold, capital and italic emphasis ours)

Melito of Sardis (c. 180)

And thus he was lifted up upon the tree, and an inscription was attached identifying the One who had been murdered. Who was he? It is painful to tell, but it is more dreadful not to tell. Therefore, hear and tremble because of him for whom the earth trembled.

He who hung the earth in space, is himself hanged.

He who fixed the heavens in place, is himself fixed in place (impaled).

He who firmly fixed all things, is himself firmly fixed to the tree.

The Lord is insulted.


The King of Israel is destroyed by an Israelite hand.

O frightful murder! O unheard of injustice! The Lord is disfigured and he is not deemed worthy of a cloak for his naked body, so that he might not be seen exposed. For this reason the stars turned and fled, and the day grew quite dark, in order to hide the naked person hanging on the tree, darkening not the body of the Lord, but the eyes of men.

Yes, even though the people did not tremble, the earth trembled instead; although the people were not afraid, the heavens grew frightened; although the people did not tear their garments, the angels tore theirs; although the people did not lament, the Lord thundered from heaven, and the most high uttered his voice.

Why was it like this, O Israel? You did not tremble for the Lord. You did not fear for the Lord. You did not lament for the Lord, yet you lamented for your firstborn. You did not tear your garments at the crucifixion of the Lord, yet you tore your garments for your own who were murdered. You forsook the Lord; you were not found by him. You dashed the Lord to the ground; you, too, were dashed to the ground, and lie quite dead.

But he arose from the dead and mounted up to the heights of heaven. When the Lord had clothed himself with humanity, and had suffered for the sake of the sufferer, and had been bound for the sake of the imprisoned, and had been judged for the sake of the condemned, and buried for the sake of the one who was buried, he rose up from the dead, and cried aloud with this voice: Who is he who contends with me? Let him stand in opposition to me. I set the condemned man free; I gave the dead man life; I raised up the one who had been entombed.

Who is my opponent? I, he says, am the Christ. I am the one who destroyed death, and triumphed over the enemy, and trampled Hades under foot, and bound the strong one, and carried off man to the heights of heaven, I, he says, am the Christ.

Therefore, come, all families of men, you who have been befouled with sins, and receive forgiveness for your sins. I am your forgiveness, I am the Passover of your salvation, I am the lamb which was sacrificed for you, I am your ransom, I am your light, I am your Savior, I am your Resurrection, I am your King, I am leading you up to the heights of heaven, I will show you the eternal Father, I will raise you up by my right hand.

This is the One who made the heavens and the earth, and who in the beginning created man,

The One proclaimed through the Law and the Prophets,

The One enfleshed in a virgin,

The One hanged upon a tree,

The One buried in the earth,

The One resurrected from the dead, and who ascended to the heights of heaven,

The One sitting at the right hand of the Father,

The One having all authority to judge and to save everything,

Through Whom the Father created everything which exists from the beginning of time.

This One is the Alpha and the Omega,

This One is the Beginning and the End–an indescribable beginning and an incomprehensible end.

This One is the Christ.

This One is the king.

This One is Jesus.

This One is Leader.

This One is the Lord.

This One is the One who rose up from the dead.

This One is the One sitting at the right hand of the Father.

He bears the Father and is borne by the Father.

To Him be the glory and the power forever. Amen. (Homily on the Passover; capital and italic emphasis ours)

To read different English versions of Melito's homily please go here:

Although there are a lot of other early Christian writers we could quote from, e.g., Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Theophilus etc., these quotations sufficiently prove that the earliest Christians and therefore the true followers of Christ have always affirmed the Triune nature of God, the perfect Deity and humanity of Christ, his vicarious death on the cross, and his glorious bodily resurrection from the dead.

Further Reading