Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

Allah – the not so sufficient one

How Muhammad’s elevation to the status of a partner
Undermines Allah’s self-sufficiency

Sam Shamoun

The evidence for Muhammad’s deification seems to never end since the more one studies the primary sources of Islam the more evident it becomes that the Islamic religion has turned its prophet into another god besides Allah. In so doing, Islam ends up disqualifying itself from being a strict monotheistic religion.

The deification of Islam’s prophet also serves to undermine the belief in the perfection and self-sufficiency of the Islamic deity, at least according to Muhammad’s own statements and logic.

For example, Muhammad claims to be commanded by Allah to say that his god has no partner:

Say (O Muhammad): "Verily, my Salat (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims." S. 6:162-163 Hilali-Khan

And in the ahadith Muhammad explains why the Muslim deity doesn’t have a partner:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger as stating that Allah the Most High and Exalted said: I am the One, One Who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one whom he associates with Allah. (Sahih Muslim, Book 042, Number 7114)


According to Abu Hurayra, the Messenger of God said:

God, ever mighty and majestic is He, says: “Of all the associates, I am the most able to dispense with association. As for him who performs a deed in which there is association with other than Me, I am quit of him, and he belongs to what he has associated [with Me].” (The Divine Sayings: 101 Hadith Qudsi: The Miskhat al-Anwar of ibn ‘Arabi, translated by Stephen Hirenstein and Martin Notcutt [Anqa Publishing, Oxford, UK; First Paperback Edition 2008], Part One, Hadith 2. Dispensing with Association, p. 8)

Here is another translation of the above narration:

Hadith Qudsi 5:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said: Allah (glorified and exalted be He) said:

I am so self-sufficient that I am in no need of having an associate. Thus he who does an action FOR SOMEONE ELSE'S SAKE AS WELL AS MINE will have that action renounced by Me to him whom he associated with Me.

It was related by Muslim (also by Ibn Majah). (Hadith Qudsi; *; *)

Muhammad asserts that since his god is totally self-sufficient he has no need for an associate. Muhammad also claims that any action which is not performed for the sake of Allah alone, but is also done for someone else, shall never be accepted by the Muslim deity. This means that all the actions and duties carried out by Muslims must be done solely for Allah.

However, as we have seen repeatedly in some of our previous articles and rebuttals, such is not the case. We furnished plenty of examples to establish that the Islamic god expects and even commands Muslims to fully surrender or submit to the desires and decisions of both Allah AND Muhammad.

For instance, the Quran states that Islam is the only religion that Allah will ever accept:

The Religion before God is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of God, God is swift in calling to account. S. 3:19

If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to God), never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter He will be in the ranks of those who have lost (All spiritual good). S. 3:85

Muslim scholars typically define the term Islam as submission, which in the religious context refers to completely submitting or surrendering to the prescribed will of Allah.

At the same time, the Quran demands all of the faithful to perfectly submit to the decisions of Muhammad!

But nay, by thy Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make thee judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which thou decidest, and submit with full submission (wa-yusallimoo tasleeman). S. 4:65 Pickthall

Noted Muslim scholar and expositor Ibn Kathir provides an example of what would happen to any individual who refuses to fully submit to Muhammad’s demands:

One Does not Become a Believer Unless He Refers to the Messenger for Judgment AND SUBMITS TO HIS DECISIONS

Allah said…

<But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them,> Allah swears by His Glorious, Most Honorable Self, that no one shall attain faith until he refers to the Messenger for judgment IN ALL MATTERS. Thereafter, whatever the Messenger commands, is the plain truth that must be submitted to inwardly and outwardly. Allah said…

<and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.> meaning: they adhere to your judgment, and thus do not feel any hesitation over your decision, and they submit to it inwardly and outwardly. They submit to the Prophet's decision with total submission without any rejection, denial or dispute. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah said, "Az-Zubayr quarreled with a man about a stream which both of them used for irrigation. Allah's Messenger said to Az-Zubayr…

<<O Zubayr! Irrigate (your garden) first, and then let the water flow to your neighbor.>> The Ansari became angry and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Is it because he is your cousin?' On that, the face of Allah's Messenger changed color (because of anger) and said…

<<Irrigate (your garden), O Zubayr, and then withhold the water until it reaches the walls (surrounding the palms). Then, release the water to your neighbor.>> So, Allah's Messenger gave Az-Zubayr his full right when the Ansari made him angry. Before that, Allah's Messenger had given a generous judgment, beneficial for Az-Zubayr and the Ansari. Az-Zubayr said, `I think the following verse was revealed concerning that case…

<But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them.>’" Another reason in his Tafsir, Al-Hafiz Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin `Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim bin Duhaym recorded that Damrah narrated that two men took their dispute to the Prophet, and he gave a judgment to the benefit of whoever among them had the right. The person who lost the dispute said, "I do not agree." The other person asked him, "What do you want then?" He said, "Let us go to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq." They went to Abu Bakr and the person who won the dispute said, "We went to the Prophet with our dispute and he issued a decision in my favor." Abu Bakr said, "Then the decision is that which the Messenger of Allah issued." The person who lost the dispute still rejected the decision and said, "Let us go to `Umar bin Al-Khattab." When they went to `Umar, the person who won the dispute said, "We took our dispute to the Prophet and he decided in my favor, but this man refused to submit to the decision." `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the second man and he concurred. `Umar went to his house and emerged from it holding aloft his sword. He struck the head of the man who rejected the Prophet's decision with the sword and killed him. CONSEQUENTLY, Allah revealed

<But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith>. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir; capital and underline emphasis ours)

Here was a Muslim who was murdered by one of Muhammad’s best friends and father-in-law simply because he questioned and disagreed with Muhammad’s decision!

What makes this all the more troubling is that Ibn Kathir states that the verse of Q. 4:65 was “revealed” after Umar had beheaded this particular Muslim for refusing to fully embrace Muhammad’s judgment.

Thus, instead of rebuking and reprimanding Umar for murdering a person for refusing to accept Muhammad’s judgment, Allah actually sends down a verse commanding all Muslims to submit to Muhammad’s decrees and demands!

The Muslim scripture further says that it is not enough to believe in and obey Allah. One must also believe in and obey Muhammad:

Say: "If ye do love God, Follow me: God will love you and forgive you your sins: For God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." Say: "Obey God and His Apostle": But if they turn back, God loveth not those who reject Faith. S. 3:31-32

It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by God AND His Apostle to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys God AND His Apostle, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path. S. 33:36

Astonishingly, there are verses where obedience to Muhammad is mentioned without any reference to obeying Allah:

So establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity; and obey the Apostle; that ye may receive mercy. S. 24:56

The reason why the Quran does this is because the Islamic scripture asserts that obeying Muhammad is the same as obeying Allah, thereby equating the two!

He who obeys the Apostle, obeys God: But if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds). S. 4:80

In fact, a person is not considered a true believer until and unless s/he believes in Allah AND Muhammad, and loves both of them more than anything else:

O you who believe! do not take your fathers and your brothers for guardians if they love unbelief more than belief; and whoever of you takes them for a guardian, these it is that are the unjust. Say: If your fathers and your sons and your brethren and your mates and your kinsfolk and property which you have acquired, and the slackness of trade which you fear and dwellings which you like, are dearer to you than Allah AND His Apostle and striving in His way, then wait till Allah brings about His command: and Allah does not guide the transgressing people. S. 9:23-24

The true believers are ONLY those, who believe in (the Oneness of) Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and when they are with HIM on some common matter, they go not away until they have asked HIS PERMISSION. Verily! Those who ask YOUR PERMISSION, those are they who (really) believe in Allah and His Messenger. So if they ask YOUR PERMISSION for some affairs of theirs, give permission to whom YOU WILL of them, and ask Allah for their forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. S. 24:62 Hilali-Khan

Here is what Muhammad is reported to have said:

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said "None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 2, Number 15)

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said, "Whoever possesses the following three qualities will have the sweetness (delight) of faith:

1. The one to whom Allah AND His Apostle becomes dearer than anything else.

2. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allah's sake.

3. Who hates to revert to Atheism (disbelief) as he hates to be thrown into the fire." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 2, Number 16)


It is reported on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah said: No bondsman believes, and, in the hadith narrated by Abdul Warith, no person believes, till I am dearer to him than the members of his household, his wealth and the whole of mankind. (Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0070)

It is reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah said: None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child, his father and the whole of mankind. (Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0071)

The Quran further says that to annoy Muhammad is to annoy Allah:

Those who annoy God AND His Apostle - God has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment. S. 33:57

This next verse is quite interesting:

O ye who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses, - until leave is given you, - for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation: but when ye are invited, enter; and when ye have taken your meal, disperse, without seeking familiar talk. Such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet: he is ashamed to dismiss you, but God is not ashamed (to tell you) the truth. And when ye ask (his ladies) for anything ye want, ask them from before a screen: that makes for greater purity for your hearts and for theirs. Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy God's Apostle, or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time. Truly such a thing is in God's sight an enormity. S. 33:53

We can see here just how greatly concerned Allah was with people overstaying their welcome at Muhammad’s homes and with individuals who planned to marry Muhammad’s widows since he saw how these things greatly annoyed his messenger.

Allah even went so far as to change the direction of prayer so as to please his partner:

O Muhammad, many a time We noticed you turning your face towards heaven; now We will make you turn towards a Qiblah THAT WILL PLEASE YOU. Turn your face during Salah towards the Sacred Mosque (Ka'bah); wherever you are turn your face in that direction. The people of the Book know this to be the truth from their Rabb. Allah is not unaware of what they do. S. 2:144 F. Malik

It is rather obvious from these examples that Allah was quite often occupied with rushing to satisfy the desires of his associate Muhammad, a fact which even Muhammad’s child-bride could see was the case:

Narrated Aisha:

I used to look down upon those ladies who had given themselves to Allah’s Apostle and I used to say, “Can a lady give herself (to a man)?” But when Allah revealed: “You (O Muhammad) can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them (your wives), and you may receive any of them whom you will; and there is no blame on you if you invite one whose turn you have set aside (temporarily).” (33.51) I said (to the Prophet), “I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 311)

Therefore, how much more should Muslims go out of their way to please Muhammad if even their own god rushes to satisfy his own messenger’s desires and wishes!

To make matters worse, there are other so-called authentic traditions which state that Allah deliberately joined Muhammad’s name together with his own name and that the Islamic deity went so far as to inscribe his messenger’s name on the door to paradise!

Qatada said, “Allah exalted his fame in this world and the Next. There is no speaker, witness nor anyone doing the prayer who fails to say, ‘There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’”

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri related that the Prophet said, “Jibril came to me and said, ‘My Lord and your Lord says, “Do you know how I have exalted your fame?”’ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said, ‘“When I am mentioned you are mentioned with Me.”’”

Ibn ‘Ata quoted a hadith qudsi saying, “I completed belief with your being mentioned with Me.” And another one which says, “I have made your mention part of My mention so whoever mentions Me, mentions you.”

Ja'far ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq, “No one mentions you as the Messenger but that he mentions Me as the Lord.”

The fact that mention of the Prophet is directly connected to mention of Allah also shows that obedience to the Prophet is connected to obedience to Allah and his name to Allah's name. Allah says, “Obey Allah and His Messenger” (2:32) and “Believe in Allah and His Messenger.” (4:136) Allah joins them together using the conjunction wa WHICH IS THE CONJUNCTION OF PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT PERMITTED TO USE THIS CONJUNCTION IN CONNECTION WITH ALLAH IN THE CASE OF ANYONE EXCEPT THE PROPHET.

Hudhayfa said that the Prophet said, “None of you should say, ‘What Allah wills and (wa) so-and-so wills.’ Rather say, ‘What Allah wills.’ Then stop and say, ‘So-and-so wills.’”

Al-Khattabi said, "The Prophet has guided you to correct behaviour in putting the will of Allah before the will of others. He chose ‘then’ (thumma) which implies sequence and deference as opposed to ‘and’ (wa) WHICH IMPLIES PARTNERSHIP.”

Something similar is mentioned in another hadith. Someone was speaking in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has been rightly guided, and whoever rebels against them both (joining them together by using the dual form)…” The Prophet said to him, “What a bad speaker you are! Get up! [Or he said: Get out!]”

Abu Sulayman said, “He disliked the two names being joined together in that way BECAUSE IT IMPLIES EQUALITY.”… (Qadi Iyad Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi, Kitab Ash-shifa bi ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa (Healing by the recognition of the Rights of the Chosen One), translated by Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley [Madinah Press, Inverness, Scotland, U.K., third reprint 1991, paperback], Part One. Allah’s great estimation of the worth of his Prophet expressed in both word and action, Chapter One. Allah’s praise of him and his great esteem for him, Section 1. Concerning praise of him and his numerous excellent qualities, pp. 7-8; capital and underline emphasis ours)


“… He coupled his name with His own name, and his pleasure with His pleasure. He made him one of the two pillars of tawhid.” (Ibid., Chapter One: Allah’s praise of his Prophet, Section 9. Concerning the marks of honour given to the Prophet in Sura al-Fath, p. 27; bold emphasis ours)


“Ibn ‘Abbas said, ‘Written on the door of the Garden is: I am Allah. There is no god but Me. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. I will not punish anyone who says that.’” (Ibid., Chapter Three: On the sound and well-known traditions related about the immense value placed on him by his Lord, his exalted position and his nobility in this world and the next, Section 1. What has come concerning his place with his Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, his being chosen, his high renown, his being preferred, his mastery over the children of Adam, the prerogative of the ranks he was given in this world and the blessing of his excellent name, p. 90; bold emphasis ours)

Certain narrations go so far as to claim that the reason Allah forgave Adam for sinning against him by eating from the forbidden tree is because the latter invoked the name of Muhammad which he saw written on the legs of Allah’s throne! Allah further told Adam that had it not been for Muhammad the Muslim deity would have never created the first man!

Al-Bayhaqi cited the following hadith in his book "Dala'il an-Nubuwwah" (Signs of Prophethood): Narrated 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab: the Prophet said: "When Adam committed the sin, he said to Allah, 'O My Lord, I ask You with reference to Muhammad to forgive me'. Allah said: 'O Adam! How did you know about Muhammad, for I have not yet created him?' Adam replied, 'O My Lord, when You created me, I looked up and saw inscribed on the legs of the Throne the words: There is no God worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger. I knew that you do not attach to Your name but the name of the dearest of Your Creation.' Allah said to Adam, 'You have spoken rightly, Adam. Muhammad is the dearest of My Creation. I have forgiven you because you asked by Muhammad. AND HAD IT NOT BEEN FOR HIM, I WOULD NOT HAVE CREATED YOU.'" This hadith was narrated by al-Hakim who also classified it AS SAHIH (authentic). Among the transmitters of this hadith is 'Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam. Al-Haythami said: "This hadith was reported by at-Dabarani and in its chain of transmitters are people I do not know. Al-Hakim was therefore mistaken in classifying this hadith as sahih because he himself criticised 'Abd ar-rahman Ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam in his book ad-Du'afa, so how can he state the authenticity of the hadith after he had criticised him?!!" (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Part 1, Surah Al-Fatiah Surah Al-Baqarah, ayat 1 to 141, Abridged by Sheikh Nasib Ar-Rafa'i [Al-Firdous Ltd., London: Second Edition 1998], p. 107, fn 10; bold and capital emphasis ours)


Abu Muhammad al-Makki, Abu'l-Layth as-Samarqandi and others related that when Adam rebelled, he said, “O Allah, forgive me my error BY THE RIGHT OF MUHAMMAD!” Allah said to him, “How do you know Muhammad?” He said, “I saw written in every place in the Garden, ‘There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’ So I knew that he was the most honoured creation in Your eyes.” SO ALLAH TURNED TO HIM AND FORGAVE HIM. It is said that this is the interpretation of the words of Allah, “Adam learned some words from his Lord.” (2:27)

Another variant has that Adam said, “When you created me, I lifted my gaze to Your Throne AND WRITTEN ON IT WAS: ‘There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,’ so I knew there would be no one held in greater esteem by You THAN THE ONE WHOSE NAME YOU PLACED ALONGSIDE YOUR OWN NAME.” Allah then revealed to him, “By My might and majesty, he is the last of the prophets among your descendants. IF IT HAD NOT BEEN FOR HIM, I WOULD HAVE NOT CREATED YOU.” It is said that Adam was given the kunya, Abu Muhammad. Some people say that it was Abu'l-Bashar (the father of mankind). (Qadi 'Iyad, Ash-Shifa, Chapter Three: On the Sound And Well-Known Traditions Related About the Immense Value Placed On Him By His Lord, His Exalted Position And His Nobility In This World And The Next, Section 1: His place, p. 89; capital emphasis ours)

Hence, these quotes testify that Allah conjoined Muhammad’s name to himself not only for the purpose of fulfilling the promise he made in Q. 94:4 that he would exalt the fame of his messenger:

Did We not exalt your mention? For you are mentioned where I [God] am mentioned in the call announcing [the time for] prayer (adhān), in the [second] call to perform the prayer (iqāma), in the witnessing [‘there is no god but God, Muhammad is His Messenger’] (tashahhud), in the Friday sermon and in other instances. (Tafsir al-Jalalayn)

(And exalted thy fame) and raised your voice with the call to prayer, supplication and testification of faith, such that you are mentioned just as I am? And the Prophet said: "Yes, indeed!" (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs)

But also because Muhammad’s deity wanted to make him his partner in the areas of salvation!

If that weren’t shocking enough, Allah even went so far as to grant Muhammad some of his own exclusive divine attributes and names!

One of the men of knowledge, Al-Husayn ibn al-Fadl, said, “He honored him with two of His own names: the compassionate and the merciful (rauf, rahim).” The same point is made in another ayat: “Allah was kind to the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves.” (3:164)…

Jafar ibn Muhammad [as-Sadiq] said, “Allah knew that His creatures would not be capable of pure obedience to Him, so He told them this in order that they would realize that they would never be able to achieve absolute purity in serving Him. Between Himself and them He placed one of their own species, CLOTHING HIM IN HIS OWN ATTRIBUTES OF COMPASSION AND MERCY. He brought him out as a truthful ambassador to creation and made it such that when someone obeys him, they are obeying Allah, and when someone agrees with him, they are agreeing with Allah.” Allah says: “Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah.” (4:80)

As-Samarqandi explains that the words a mercy to all the worlds mean for both the jinn and mankind. It is also said that it means for all creation. He is a mercy to the believers by guiding them, a mercy to the hypocrites by granting them security from being killed, and a mercy to the unbelievers by deferring their punishment. Ibn Abbas said, “He is a mercy to the believers and also to the unbelievers since they are safe from what befell the other communities who cried lies.”

It is related that the Prophet said to Jibril, “Has any of this mercy touched you?” He replied, “Yes, I used to have fear about what would happen to me, but now I feel safe because of the way Allah praised me when He said, ‘Possessing power, secure with the Lord of the Throne, obeyed, then trusty.’” (81:21)

Allah says, “Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth; the likeness of His light is like a niche wherein is a lamp, the lamp in a glass, the glass as if it were a glittering star kindled from a blessed tree, an olive that is neither of the east nor the west whose oil would nearly shine, even if no fire touched it. Light upon light. Allah guides to His Light whomever He wills. Allah makes examples for people and Allah has knowledge of everything.” (24:35)

Kab al-Ahbar and Ibn Jubayr said, “By the second light He means Muhammad. Allah says, ‘the likeness of his light…meaning the light of Muhammad.”

Sahl ibn Abdullah at-Tustari said that it means that Allah is the guide of the people of the heavens and the earth. Then Sahl said, “… like the light of Muhammad when it is lodged in the loins like a niche. By the lamp He means his heart. The glass is his breast. It is as if it were a glittering star because of belief and wisdom it contains, kindled from a blessed tree, i.e. from the light of Ibrahim. He makes a comparison with the blessed tree and He says, ‘Its oil would nearly shine,’ i.e. Muhammad's prophecy is almost evident to the people before he speaks, just like this oil.”

A lot more is said about this ayat, and Allah knows best what it means.

Elsewhere in the Qur'an, Allah calls his Prophet a light and a light-giving lamp. He says, “A light and a Clear Book have come to you from Allah.” (5:15) Allah also says, “We sent you as a witness, a bringer of good news and a warner, one who calls to Allah with His permission and a light-giving lamp” (Qadi Iyad Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi, Kitab Ash-shifa bi ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa (Healing by the recognition of the Rights of the Chosen One), translated by Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley [Madinah Press, Inverness, Scotland, U.K., third reprint 1991, paperback], Part One. Allah’s great estimation of the worth of his Prophet expressed in both word and action, Chapter One. Allah’s praise of him and his great esteem for him, Section 1. Concerning praise of him and his numerous excellent qualities, pp. 4-6; underline emphasis ours)


Section 14. On Allah honouring the Prophet WITH SOME OF HIS OWN BEAUTIFUL NAMES and describing him with some of His own Sublime Qualities

Know that Allah has bestowed a mark of honour on many of the Prophets by investing them with some of His names – for instance, when He calls Ishaq and Isma’il ‘knowing’ (‘alim) and ‘forbearing’ (halim), Ibrahim ‘forbearing’, Nuh ‘thankful’ (shakur), ‘Isa and Yahya ‘devoted’ (barr), Musa ‘noble’ (karim) and ‘strong’ (qawwi), Yusuf ‘a knowing guardian’ (hafidh, ‘alim), Ayyub ‘patient’ (sabur) and Isma’il ‘truthful to the promise’ (sadiq al-wa’d). The Mighty Book has referred to them as such in various places where they are mentioned.

Yet He has preferred our Prophet Muhammad since He has adorned him with a wealth of His names in His Mighty Book and on the tongues of His Prophets

One of His names is the Praiseworthy (al-Hamid). This means the One who is praised because He praises Himself and His slaves praise him. It also means the One who praises Himself and praises acts of obedience. The Prophet is called Muhammad and Ahmad. Muhammad means praised, and that is how his name occurs in the Zabur of David. Ahmad means the greatest of those who give praise and the most sublime of those who are praised. Hassan ibn Thabit indicated this when he said:

It is taken for him from His own name in order to exalt him.

The One with the Throne is praised (Mahmud) AND HE IS MUHAMMAD.

Two of Allah’s names are the Compassionate, the Merciful (ar-Ra’uf, ar-Rahim). They are similar in meaning. He calls him by them in His Book when He says, “Compassionate, merciful to the believers.” (9.128).

Among His names is the Clear Truth (al-Haqq al-Mubin). The Truth (al-Haqq) means that which exists and is indisputably real. Similarly the Clear (al-Mubin) is the One whose divinity is clear. Bana and Abana mean the same - to make clear to His slaves the matter of their deen and their return to Him. He calls the Prophet by this name in His Book, when He says, “Until the Truth comes to you and a clear Messenger” (15:89) He says, “Say: I am the Clear Warner” (4:170) He says, “They rejected the truth that came to them” (6:5).

It is said that this means Muhammad. It is said that it means the Qur’an…

Another of Allah’s names is the Light (an-Nur). It means Possessor of Light, i.e. its Creator or the Illuminator of the heavens and the earth with lights, and the One who illuminates the hearts of the believers with guidance. Allah calls the Prophet “light” when He says, “A light and a clear book has come to you from Allah.” (5:15) It is said that this refers to Muhammad. It is also said that it refers to the Qur’an. Allah also calls him “a luminous lamp.” (33:46) He called him that to make his position clear, to clarify his prophethood and to illumine the hearts of the believers and the gnostics by what he had brought. (Qadi Iyad Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi, Kitab Ash-shifa bi ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa (Healing by the recognition of the Rights of the Chosen One), translated by Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley [Madinah Press, Inverness, Scotland, U.K., third reprint 1991, paperback], Chapter Three. On The Sound And Well-Known Traditions Related About The Immense Value Placed On Him By His Lord, His Exalted Position And His Nobility In This World And The Next, pp. 126-127; capital and underline emphasis ours)


One of His names is the Generous/Noble (al-Karim). It means the One with Much Good. It is said that it means the Overflower. It is said that it means the Forgiving. It is said that it means the High. In the hadith related about his names we find, “He is the most generous.” Allah calls the Prophet “noble” when He says, “It is the word of a noble messenger” (81:19) It is said that this refers to Muhammad and it is also said that this refers to Jibril. The Prophet said, “I am the noblest of the children of Adam.” All the meanings of the name can be validly applied to him. (Ibid., p. 128)


One of the names of Allah is the Strong (al-Qawi), the One with Strength, and the Firm. Allah describes him with that, saying, “Endued with power with the One with the Throne, secure” (81:20) It is said that this refers to Muhammad and it is also said that it means Jibril… One of His names is the Mighty (al-‘Aziz). It means the difficult of access, victor, or the one who has no like or the self-exalted. Allah says, “Might belongs to Allah and His Messenger” (63:8) i.e. by inapproachability and majestic value. (Ibid., pp. 129-131)

That’s not all. Muhammad told his followers that all of their plunder and war booty belonged to Allah and himself. Yet, because Allah and his messenger are so merciful they only took a fifth of the spoils and allowed the Muslim marauders and bandits to keep the rest:

They ask thee (O Muhammad) of the spoils of war. Say: The spoils of war belong to Allah AND the messenger, so keep your duty to Allah, and adjust the matter of your difference, and obey Allah AND His messenger, if ye are (true) believers… And know that whatever ye take as spoils of war, lo! a fifth thereof is for Allah, and for the messenger and for the kinsman (who hath need) and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, if ye believe in Allah and that which We revealed unto Our slave on the Day of Discrimination, the day when the two armies met. And Allah is Able to do all things. S. 8:1, 41

Not only did Muhammad think that the spoils were his he even went so far as to say that the entire earth belonged to him as well!

Narrated Abu Huraira:

While we were in the Mosque, the Prophet came out and said, "Let us go to the Jews." We went out till we reached Bait-ul-Midras. He said to them, "If you embrace Islam, you will be safe. You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to expel you from this land. So, if anyone amongst you owns some property, he is permitted to sell it, otherwise you should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 392)

To summarize the discussion thus far, we discovered that:

Allah made Muhammad his partner by making it mandatory for Muslims to confess Muhammad’s name alongside that of Allah’s.

Allah wrote Muhammad’s name on the door to paradise and on the legs of his divine throne.

Allah made it obligatory for all true Muslims to fully submit to, confess, believe in, and perfectly obey both Muhammad and himself.

Allah also made it an obligation to love Muhammad just as much as they love him.

Allah further granted Muhammad some of his very own exclusive names and attributes.

Now with the foregoing in perspective let us not forget what the unforgivable sin in Islam is, i.e. shirk:

We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve because they ascribe (ashrakoo) unto Allah partners, for which no warrant hath been revealed. Their habitation is the Fire, and hapless the abode of the wrong-doers. S. 3:151 Pickthall

Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated (yushraka) with Him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases; and whoever associates (yushrik) anything with Allah, he devises indeed a great sin. S. 4:48 Shakir

And, verily it has been revealed to thee as unto those before thee, `If thou associate partners (ashrakta) with ALLAH, thy work shall, surely, come to naught and thou shalt certainly be of the losers.' S. 39:65 Sher Ali – cf. Q. 4:116; 6:88

Here is how one lexical source defines shirk:

Shiin-Ra-Kaf = to be a companion, be sharer/partner. shirkun - share, participation, polytheism, idolatry, making associate/partner with Allah. shariik (pl. shurakaa) - associate, partner, sharer. Nouns of the second declension when followed by the affixed pronouns take the three inflexions thus shurakaa, shurakaa'i, shurakaa'a. shaarak (vb. 3) - to share with. ashraka (vb. 4) - to make a sharer or associate, give companions (e.g. to God), be a polytheist or idolater. ashraktumuuni - you associated me as partner. mushrik - one who gives associate to God, polytheist. mushtarikun (vb. 8) - one who partakes or shares. (Project Root List; underline emphasis ours)

And what is a partner or associate? The following online dictionary tells us:

1. a person who shares or is associated with another in some action or endeavor; sharer; associate. (*)

Thus, by intentionally taking Muhammad to be his partner and making him his associate in all the important and essential aspects of the Islamic religion, Allah has become personally responsible for creating a situation in which all Muslims end up inevitably committing the unpardonable sin of shirk!

Moreover, by commanding Muslims to perform their deeds for his and Muhammad’s sake, Allah ends up undermining his very own self-sufficiency! Recall what the hadith, which we cited at the start of the article, stated:

Allah (glorified and exalted be He) said: I am so self-sufficient that I am in no need of having an associate. Thus he who does an action for someone else's sake as well as Mine will have that action renounced by Me to him whom he associated with Me.

In light of the fact that the believers are commanded to perfectly submit to and obey whatever Allah and Muhammad have decreed this means that Muslims are actually performing their actions and duties for the sake of Allah AND Muhammad. And since the Islamic sources claim that Allah has made Muhammad his associate and partner in all religious matters this means that the Islamic deity cannot be self-sufficient, at least not according to his very own statements! There is simply no way around this conundrum, at least not for those Muslims who accept the authority of the hadiths, especially the ones that supposedly narrate the very words of Allah himself.

What makes this so ironic is that Muslims have now become just like the very idolators of Muhammad’s day that the Quran condemns:

And they assign to Allah a share of the tilth and cattle which He has created, and they say: "This is for Allah according to their pretending, and this is for our (Allah's so-called) partners." But the share of their (Allah's so-called) "partners" reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their (Allah's so-called) "partners"! Evil is the way they judge! S. 6:136 Hilali-Khan

That is because when Allah alone was called upon, you disbelieved, and when associates were given to Him, you believed; so judgment belongs to Allah, the High, the Great. S. 40:12 Shakir

The only real difference between the two religions is that the idols of Mecca eventually became supplanted and replaced by the figure of Muhammad!

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