of part of them, has the same effect, for Tradition, related 1 by 'Ubadat ibn Samit says that Muhammad spoke thus: 'Five prayers has God Most High imposed: whosoever has rightly performed the ablutions belonging to them, and has prayed them at their time, and has completed the prostration and the humiliation connected with them, he has a claim upon God that He should forgive him: and whosoever has not done them has no claim upon God: He pardons him if He willeth, and He punishes him if He willeth.' Zaid ibn Khalid is quoted as stating that Muhammad said: 'Whosoever 2 prays with two prostrations (سجدتين) in which he blunders not, to him God will forgive whatever offences he may previously have committed.' Abu Huraira states that one day an Arab of the desert came to Muhammad and asked him to show him what deed he should do in order to enter paradise. Muhammad said: 'Thou 3 shalt worship God and shalt not associate anything with Him, and thou shalt raise the written prayers and pay the appointed alms and fast during Ramadan.' The man replied: 'By Him in whose hand my life is, I shall not add anything to this, nor shall I detract therefrom.' Accordingly, when this man turned to go away, Muhammad said: 'Whoever pleases to gaze at one of the people of paradise, let him gaze at this man.'

1 Mishkat p. 50. 2 Mishkat p. 50. 3 Mishkat p. 4.

Another method of gaining paradise is through taking part in a jihad. Sometimes this is mentioned alone, but sometimes the performance of certain other duties as well is insisted on. Thus Abu Huraira quotes Muhammad as saying: 'Whosoever 1 has believed in God and His Apostle and has raised the prayer and has fasted during Ramadan, it has become a right incumbent upon God that He should cause him to enter paradise, whether he has fought a jihad in the way of God or has remained in his country in which he was born.' Abu Qatada states on Muhammad's authority that 'The 2 fighting a jihad in God's way, and faith, are the best of works.' 'Abdu'llah bin 'Amr ibni'l-'As informs us that Muhammad said: 'Being 2 slain in the way of God atones for everything except debt.' It is held that death in a jihad is martyrdom, 3 and that even a desire for such a death merits paradise. Thus a Tradition states that Muhammad said: 'Whosoever 2 has asked God for martyrdom with truthfulness, God causes him to attain to the abodes of the martyrs, even should he die in his bed.' Abu Unama tells us that Muhammad declared that among the things which God values most are a tear 4 caused by fear of Him and a drop of blood shed in a jihad. When we remember that Muslim Tradition speaks of people slain in a jihad as martyrs, we shall be able to understand the following statement which

1 Mishkat p. 321. 2 Op. cit., p. 322.
1 Mishkat p. 323. 4 Op. cit., p. 325.