Miqdam 1 attributes to Muhammad: 'The martyr has in the sight of God six privileges: he is pardoned on the first occasion [or at the first outpouring—of regret], and he sees his seat in paradise, and he is delivered from the torture of the grave, and he is safe from the greater terror, and there is set on his head the crown of majesty, the jewel of which is more precious than this world and what is in it, and he weds . . . seventy spouses of the large-eyed huris, and his intercession is accepted for seventy of his relatives.'

Regarding the efficacy of the repetition of fixed forms of prayer and similar religious formulae the testimony of the Traditions is clear. Thus in the Mishkat we are told by Abu Dharr 2 that Muhammad said that any one who said, 'There is no god but God', and afterwards died in that belief would enter paradise. Abu Dharr said: 'Even if he has committed adultery and stolen?' Muhammad replied: 'Even if he has committed adultery and stolen.' Abu Dharr three times asked the same question and three times received the same answer. If this Tradition be reliable it shows that a man may obtain salvation from punishment (according to Islam) without giving up his sins, and that profession of faith in the divine unity is of such virtue that obedience to the commandments of God Most High is not required of the man who makes this profession with his lips though he denies it by his

1 Op. cit., p. 325. 2 Mishkat p. 6.  

deeds. In close accord with this is the Tradition recorded by 'Ubadat ibnu's-Samit, that Muhammad said: 'Whosoever 1 bears witness that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is the Apostle of God, to him God prohibits hell-fire.' Mu'adh declares that Muhammad affirmed that 'The 1 keys of paradise are the testifying that there is no god but God,' and Abu Bakr says the same thing when he relates that Muhammad, in answer to a question, replied: 'Whosoever 2 accepts from me the Kalima, half of which I stated to my uncle [Abu Talib], to him it is salvation.'

Regarding the effect of repeating the fixed prayers (الصلوات) we are told that Muhammad one day asked: 'If 3 there be a river at the gate of one of you, in which he bathes five times every day, will any of his impurity remain?' In reply it was said that none would be left. He then said: 'Then that is what the five prayers are like: by means of them God wipes out sins.' Again a Tradition attributes to Muhammad the following saying: ' Whoever 4 says سبحان الله and بحمده hundred times in a day, his sins are remitted, even if they be like the foam of the sea' ; and again 'Whoever 4 says سبحان الله and بحمده a hundred times when it is morning and when it is evening, on the resurrection day no one except one person will bring anything better than what he brings.'

1 Op. cit., p. 7. 2 Op. cit., p. 8.
3 Op. cit., p. 49. 4 Op. cit., p. 192.