into his book and should pass over him lightly: verily he whose reckoning is dealt with strictly on that day, O 'Ayisha, perishes.'

Such Traditions as these make it clear that Islam admits the universality 1 of sin and man's need of God's forgiveness. What then are the means which Islam provides for obtaining pardon?

It teaches that these are of two kinds: (1) the first consists in the gaining of merit by performing acts supposed to be good, and by legal washings and purifications, by repeating the fixed prayers at the appointed tines, by fasting during Ramadan, by reverently visiting (زيارة) the tombs of saints (أولياء), by engaging in jihad, and by reciting the Qur'an or certain of its Suras; (2) the second method is that of relying on God's mercy and hoping for salvation through that and through repentance and faith and the kindness of Muhammad and his intercession. This teaching is doubtless in accordance with the Traditions, whether it be true or not. To remove any doubt upon this point we proceed to quote a few of these Traditions from the Mishkat.

With regard to washing and its effects in removing sin, Malik and an-Nisa'i quote the following as

1 Translators will notice what is implied, though not said. The idea is that, if even Muhammad was a sinner and asked for pardon, then all ordinary men need it. A Christian writer could not speak of Muhammad thus, as superior to ordinary men, and Muslims are offended if his sins are expressly mentioned.

handed down 1 by 'Abdu'llah. The Apostle of God said: 'When a believing servant performs religious ablution (وضوء) and rinses his mouth, the sins come out of his month; and when he blows, the sins come out of his nose; and when he washes his face, the sins come out of his face, until they come out from under his eyelids; and when he washes his hands, the sins come out of his hands, until they come out from under his finger-nails; and when he wipes his head, the sins come out of his head, until they emerge from his ears; and when he washes his feet, the sins come out of his feet until they emerge from his toe-nails; then is his course to the mosque and his set prayer (صلوة) and a work of supererogation for himself.' The word نافلة is explained in the note to this passage as meaning something in excess of what was required to atone for evil deeds, something to raise his rank (in paradise).

Great efficacy is ascribed to good works 2 (حسنات). Thus Abu Umama relates 3 that Muhammad said 'Offer your five fixed prayers (صلوات) and fast during your month, and pay the legal alms of your goods, and obey him who has the right to command you: ye shall enter the paradise of your Lord.' The repetition of these fixed prayers alone, or even

1 Mishkat, pp. 31 and 32. The importance attached to ablutions is shown by the care taken to state Muhammad's method of performing them: Mishkat, p. 37.
2 Cf. Suras xi. 116 and ii. 273.

3 Mishkat, p. 50.