strive to ascertain from the gods by means of the art of soothsaying, for that to whomsoever the gods were propitious to them they showed these things.'

(3) Plato, in his celebrated dialogue entitled Phaedo in which he gives an account of Socrates' last discourse on the night before his death, represents Simmias, one of Socrates' disciples, as stating his opinion, in which Socrates agreed with him, in these words: 'It 1 seems to me, Socrates, just as it does to thee also, that during the present life it is either an impossible or a very difficult thing to know for certain about such matters as these . . . . For we ought, in reference to them, to accomplish at least some one of these things: either to learn how they are, or to discover, or, if it is impossible to do so, to accept at least the best and most irrefragable of human opinion

1 Εμοι γαρ δοκει, ω Σωκρατες, περι των τοιουτων ισως ωσπερ και σοι το μεν σαφες ειδεναι εν τω νυν βιω η αδυνατον ειναι η παγχαλεπον τι ... δειν γαρ περι αυτα εν γε τι τουτων διαπραξασθαι, η μαθειν οπη εχει, η ευρειν, η, ει ταυτα αδονατον, τον γουν βελτιστον των ανθρωπινων λογων λαβοντα και δυσε-ξελεγκοτατον, επι τουτου οχουμενον ωσπερ επι σχεδιασ κινδυνευοντα διαπλευσαι τον βιον, ει μη τις δυναιτο ασφαλεστερον και ακινδυνοτερον επι βεβαιοτερου οχηματος η λογου θειου τινος διαπορευθηναι (Phaedo, cap. 85).

and, embarking upon this as upon a raft, to venture to sail over the sea of life—unless one should be able to cross over more safely and with less danger upon a more solid vessel, or upon some divine word.' Here he shows how needful he felt the guidance of a divine revelation to show men how to pass through this life without being shipwrecked on their voyage to the far distant and unseen shore of eternity. It should be remembered that Plato, the author of this dialogue, was born 429 B.C. and died 347 B.C.

(4) The wise and thoughtful Greek historian Thucydides, who was born about 471 B.C., in reflecting upon men's conduct, tells us that, in his opinion, 'All 1 men have by nature been led to sin both privately and publicly, and there is no law which will hinder them from this.'

5) Solon, the wise Athenian philosopher and lawgiver, was born about 638 B.C. He is reported to have said: 'The will of the gods is entirely hidden from men.'

(6) The philosopher Aristotle was a disciple of Plato and the tutor of the great conqueror, Alexander of Macedon, who in the east is often called the 'Possessor of the Two Horns ' (ذو القرنين) Aristotle's wisdom is famous in almost all lands. He was born 384 B.C. and died 322 B.C. He held

1 Πεφυκασι τε απαντες και ιδια και δημοσια αμαρ-τανειν, και ουκ εστι νομος οστις απειρξει τουτου. (Thucydides, Hist. Lib. III. cap. 45).