superstitions, that by means of austerities, offerings, self-torture, abstinence, fasting, pilgrimages, visiting places which they regard as holy, and other similar practices, they will gain salvation and forgiveness of their sins. But it is clear to every wise and intelligent man that these things cannot be an expiation for sin in the sight of God the Holy One, and that by their means salvation cannot be procured. This will be more fully pointed out in the next section. In conclusion, since by the help of reason no remedy can be found by which salvation and remission of sins is to be obtained, it is evident that reason cannot guide man along the way of truth and the path of safety. Therefore, unless the most merciful God has devised an expiation for man's sins, and a means of salvation for him, then assuredly man will remain liable to the utmost punishment of his sins and will perish everlastingly.

Ancient philosophers also, including not a. few who lived before the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ, decided, as may be learnt from their books, that human reason is unable to guide men and to point out the way in which forgiveness of sins and eternal salvation may be obtained. Many of the best known of these philosophers were Greeks, and others of them wrote in the Greek language. Since these men were in many cases famed for their learning and ability, the books of some of them are still preserved and studied by the learned men of


Europe and at almost every university in the world. We quote a few sayings of these men, selecting those of different lands and of different dates, in order to show that the wisest of them recognized man's inner corruption and his need of divine guidance in his search for the truth.

(1) Crates, the cynic philosopher, who flourished at the city of Thebes in Greece about 288 B.C., 'used 1 to say that it was impossible to find (a man) free from fault, but that in him also as in a pomegranate there was some rotten grain or other.'

(2) Socrates, the most famous philosopher whom Greece ever produced, was born 469 B.C. and was put to death at Athens in the year 396 B.C. He was the teacher of the celebrated Plato, and, not having any knowledge of the holy Scriptures of the prophets, was never able to escape fully from the darkness of heathenism and polytheism, though he avoided many heathen errors. 'He said 2 that men ought to learn for themselves whatever things the gods had granted to them to learn and to do: and that what was not clear to men they should

1 Ελεγε τε αδυνατον ειναι αδιαπτωτον ευρειν, αλλ ωσπερ εν ροια και σαπρον τινα κοκκον ειναι (Diogines Laertius, De Vitis Philosophurum, Lib. VI, cap. v, § 89).
2 Εφη δε δειν α μεν μαθοντες ποιειν εδωκαν οι Θεοι μανθανειν. α δε μη δηλα τοις ανθρωποις εστι πειρασθαι δια μαντικης παρα των θεων πυθανεσθαι. τουςθεους γαρ οις αν ωσιν ιλεω σημαινειν (Xenophon, Memorabilia Socratis, Lib I, cap. i, § 9).