with dead bodies, which are being conveyed to Karbala or to Qum or to the tomb of 'Ali Rida' in the hope that, if they are buried near the grave of one of the auliya' (اولياء), favour may be shown them on the resurrection day. But, besides all this, we find a Tradition which is the great hope of many Muslims whose consciences convict them of sin. This Tradition is recorded by Ahmad and at-Tirmidhi and ibn Majah; it is handed down by Abu Umama and runs thus: 'I heard 1 the Apostle of God say: my Lord hath promised me that there shall enter paradise of my people seventy thousand, without account and without punishment upon them: with every thousand seventy thousand and three double 2 handfuls of the double handfuls of my Lord.' The meaning evidently is that, out of favour towards Muhammad, God will permit a countless number of Muslims to enter paradise without judging and punishing them. This accords with the Tradition 3 that states that on the judgement day Muhammad will successfully intercede for his people, when the Prophets refuse to do so, and will bring many out of hell-fire. Whether Muhammad really uttered such words

1 Mishkat, p. 478.
2 حثيات The word in the singular means the amount of earth or water which a man can hold and sprinkle in his two hands. Hence it denotes as many people as God could hold grains of dust in His two hands.
3 Mishkat, p. 480.

as are here ascribed to him, 1 we cannot tell; but we refer to them to show that we are right in describing the second way of salvation on which Muslims set their hope of escape from final destruction and of admission to paradise.

Whoever will carefully compare those means of obtaining merit and salvation which are included in the first of the above two classes with those methods which, as we have seen, the Hindus and others of the heathen adopt, will perceive that in this respect there is no very great and utter difference between them. The religion of Islam is vastly superior to any form of heathenism in teaching the unity of God and in forbidding the worship of images; it is all the more, therefore, a matter of surprise to find so great a resemblance between the means of salvation taught by the heathen and those to which Muslims so generally trust their eternal happiness. But, as such is the case, the objections which we have already brought against the efficacy of these means of salvation when inculcated by the heathen apply with equal force to them when taught by the Mullas. We have proved that it is men's duty to do good deeds, and that, therefore, they cannot claim the reward of merit for doing them. Hence such good deeds cannot possibly procure remission of sins and be a means of obtaining salvation. We have also shown that no

1 They contradict what is said in the Qur'an ولا تزر وازرة - وزر أخرى (Suras ii. 164; xvii. 16; xxxv. 19; xxxix. 9; liii 39).