the efficacy of repetition is found in Hinduism and other false religions. But it is well to remind ourselves of the words which the Lord Jesus Christ spoke on this subject: 'And 1 in praying use not vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. Be not therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him.'

The teaching of the Traditions on these subjects agrees in spirit with what is written in the Qur'an. Thus the value of fasting is mentioned in Suratu'l-Baqara (ii), 179-83; that of the pilgrimage to Mecca in Suratu'l-Baqara (ii) 192-200; Suratu Ali 'Imran (iii) 91; and Suratu'l-Hajj (xxii) 27; and that of the fixed prayers in Suratu'l-Baqara (ii) 39; Suratu Bani Isra'il (xvii) 80; and Suratu'l-'Ankabut (xxix) 44.

The second method of obtaining salvation, according to the belief of the great mass of Muslims is by reliance on God's mercy and on repentance,2 faith in God and Muhammad, and Muhammad's intercession. Many people rely also on the intercession of the saints 3 (اولياء) though this is contrary to the

1 Matt. vi. 7-8.
2 See Rusum-i-Hind, part ii, chapter ii, p. 263.
3 Though this properly falls under the first method of salvation (as we have said above), yet we mention it here, instead of in its proper place, because it forms a connecting link between the first and the second.

Qur'an.1 Yet throughout the whole Islamic world visits (زيارة) to the tombs of certain dead men are constantly made in the hope of gaining salvation through their assistance. Even in China the importance of this is taught by the Mullas. Thus in an Arabic inscription at Sianfu, dated A. H. 952, it is thus written: 'A visit to the tombs is . . . a method for the attainment of blessings, and a protection from the pollutions of wicked deeds, and a present admonition, the reminder of a day when one shall blow upon forms and the brightness of hearts, and their glances shall be humbled.' The inscription goes on to say regarding the man who makes such a ziyara: 'The good, pure spirits aid him and speak to him and intercede for him in attainment of his main desires . . . . And after the hurry and dread of the road and the perplexity of affairs, it is incumbent on them (the pilgrims) to ask aid from the people of the tombs; according to his (Muhammad's) 'saying—peace be unto him!— "When ye have become perplexed in affairs, then ask aid from the people of the tombs". . . Asking the aid of the people of the tombs is a necessity for admission to paradise and its huris and its palaces and its pleasures and its rivers and its trees, and a meeting with the merciful 2 one.' In Persia the traveller frequently meets whole caravans laden

1 Suras ii. 45; lxxxii. 19.  
2 The inscription is given in facsimile, facing p, 101 of Broomhall's Islam in China.