or the court, he must have his weapon ready to strike 1 him.

A later philosopher, Mencius (372 to 289 B.C.), has something better to teach us than this. He says 'Those who obey God are saved, while those who rebel against Him perish.' He probably referred to long life in this world as the result of obeying God's commandments. But it will be noticed that he knows of no way of salvation for sinners, unless it be fasting and ablution, for he says: 'Though a man be wicked, if be duly prepares himself by fasting and abstinence and purification by water, he may sacrifice to God.' Another wise saying of his is recorded: 'By exerting his mental powers to the full, man comes to understand his own nature. When he understands his own nature he understands heaven.' 2 With this last saying may be compared that which the Greeks ascribed to the oracle of Apollo at Delphi: (Γνωθι σαντον), 'Know thyself', and still better with the saying of 'Ali ben Abi Talib, 'Whoso knoweth himself knoweth his Lord.' 3

The Chinese believe that man's spirit (روح) comes from heaven, and his soul (نفس) from earth. When he dies and is buried, the soul takes up its residence in a tablet placed on the coffin,

1 Legge's Chinese Classics, quoted by Douglas, Confucianism and Taouism, pp. 144, 145.
2 Giles, Religions of Ancient China, pp. 42, 43.
‫3 من عرف نفسه فقد عرف ربه

while the spirit is free in the ether. The spirit is beneficent, and those of their ancestors are worshipped by the Chinese throughout the whole empire. The souls of the dead, on the other hand, may do injury, and are therefore placated with food and offerings, and are asked to grant prosperity to their descendants.

The high officers of state (Mandarins) are also priests of the state-religion, and it is part of their duty to take a leading part in its ceremonies. The people are devoted to the worship of their ancestors as well as of the powers of nature. Widows still sometimes kill themselves, to be buried with their dead husbands.

The Ta'oist priests are very numerous and they assist the people in ancestor-worship and encourage them to adore many other things, such as tigers, snakes, trees, rocks, mountains and rivers. Images are found not only in temples but in every house. Yet the people have so far forgotten the one Supreme God whom their earliest ancestors worshipped that His name Shang-Ti is now sometimes used to include hosts of other deities.

It is plain, therefore, that neither Confucianism nor Taoism can give any satisfactory answer to the question which often rises in the thoughtful man's heart, 'What must I do to be saved?'

A third religion which is believed in by many of the Chinese is Buddhism. This religion was introduced from India many centuries ago. Its founder