the enjoined ceremonies, and knowledge. Man can attain each degree of virtue through study and through suppression of the passions. The passions may be subdued through the appointed ceremonies and music and imitation of the Ta'o. Like it, man should become passionless, quiet, silent, inactive. The Ta'o teh King Book of the Way and of Virtue says: 'The Ta'o itself is always motionless and devoid of exertion, and yet it produces everything; the perfect man of Ta'o should similarly let himself be guided by inaction. Thus the nation will of itself grow better and become right-minded.' The devotee should live near heaven; that is to say, he should withdraw to the mountains and remain in a state of inaction.

It was probably this latter teaching that prepared many of the Chinese to become Buddhists when that religion entered China.

The state-religion of China is generally said to be Confucianism. In reality Confucius (whom the Chinese call K'ung-fu-tsi— كُنك فوتسي) taught only a philosophy, not a religion. In the works compiled by him God (Shang-Ti) is mentioned only once, and then in a quotation, though he often speaks of T'ien (تهيئين), 'Heaven'. Confucius was born 551 B.C. and died 478 B c. Ta'oism tacitly pervaded his whole system with regard both to nature and to ethics: He did nothing to oppose the prevalent nature-worship and ancestor-worship of his time, and these are now the real and actual


religion of the Chinese people. Confucius recognized the existence of a spirit-world, though he admitted that he knew nothing about it. Hence his disciples naturally retained the belief on this subject in which they had been brought up. He did much harm to true religion by referring to 'Heaven' instead of to 'God', because he thus encouraged men to forget God's personality. His system is, therefore, a philosophy which is concerned with the proper method of Government and with good conduct. It concerns itself exclusively with this world, and has no teaching on the way of salvation from sin. In fact he says, 'The sage is equal to heaven.' Some of Confucius' maxims are good. He says: 'What you do not want done to yourself do not do to others.' 1 A disciple once asked him 'What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?' Confucius replied: 'With what then will you recompense kindness? Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with 2 kindness.' But he inculcated the duty of revenge, not of forgiveness. A disciple said to him: 'What course is to be pursued in the case of the murder of a father or a mother?' Confucius replied: 'The son must sleep upon a mattress of grass, with his shield for his pillow, he must decline to take office; he must not live under the same heaven with the slayer. When he meets him in the market-place

1 Lun Yu (Analects), xv, 23. 2 Lun Yu, xiv, 36.