The final conclusion to the whole matter is a verse which the commentator Husain interprets as having a reference to war and conflict:—1

O ye who believe! be patient and vie in patience, and be firm and fear God that it may be well with you. Sura Al-'Imran (iii) 200.

The result of all the Prophet's explanations was that he did not by this defeat lose a single convert nor damage his reputation.

After the battle of Uhud2 the two armies parted with the mutual threat, ‘Next year we shall meet again at Badr.' The Quraish started out, when the time came round, with a considerable force to fulfil their portion of the compact; but a severe drought drove them back to Mecca, so when Muhammad with his men arrived they found no

[Footnote continued from previous page]
 'That this religion may conquer all religions and sects when Jesus comes, when all the men in the world will accept Islam.' Tafsir-i-Husaini, vol. ii, p. 400.
Another writer says:—
اِس آيت مين اشارة هى كة اسلام ناسخ اديان هى
'It is shown in this verse that Islam abrogates all religions.' Khalasatu't-Tafasir, vol. iv, p. 432.
Baidawi says,
ليغلّبة على جميع الاديان means 'That it may conquer all religions.' Vol. ii, p. 331.
1 It may refer to control over passions and evil. but both interpretations are given by Baidawi, 'Abdu'llah bin 'Abbas and other commentators. The warlike one is given by all and, as the verse occurs in a Sura so full of the battle of Uhud, this interpretation is probable.
  2 Some Muslims now suggested an alliance with Jews and Christians, but this revelation came later on and not such alliance was ever made:—

O believers, take not Jews or Christians as friends. They are but one another's friends. If any of you taketh them for his friends he is surely one of them, God will not guide the evildoers. Sura Al-Ma'idah (v) 56.

This is quite inconsistent with the fifty-third verse of this same Sura :—

And if God had pleased He had made you all of one people, but He would test you by what He hath given to each,

See also Wherry's note on this verse, vol. ii, p. 137.


enemy. They stayed at Badr eight days and sold their goods at a large profit. This happy ending to what might have been a serious and bloody conflict called for a special revelation:—

As to those who, after the reverse1 which befell them, respond to God and His Apostle—such of them as do good works and fear God shall have a great reward;
Who, when men say to them, 'Now are the Meccans mustering against you; therefore fear them,' it only increased their faith, and they said, 'Our sufficiency is God, and He is an excellent Protector.'
They returned,2 therefore, with the favour of God, enriched by Him3 and untouched by harm; and they followed what was well pleasing to God, and He is of mighty munificence.4
Verily that devils5 would cause you to fear his friends fear them not, but fear me if ye are believers. Sura Al-'Imran (iii) 166-9.

Other expeditions against certain tribes followed, none of which are of any special interest, except that in one, the 'Salatu'1-Khauf,' or the regulation for prayers in times of danger, was instituted. One division of the army watched while the other prayed.6 The Qur'an had now become the medium through which the warlike news and military

1 i.e., the defeat at Ubud.
2 From Badr.
3 Either by the booty secured, or else, according to Baidawi, because they found a fair there and gained much money by merchandise. Baidawi, vol. i, p. 175.
4 In confirming and increasing their faith and in aiding them to hasten to the fray, and also to remain in their religion and to display courage before the enemy. Baidawi, vol. i, p. 175.
5 There is some doubt as to whom this term applies. The commentators Ibn 'Abbas and Baidawi say it is Nu'aim, who tried to frighten the Muslims, or Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Quraish.
6 Sura An-Nisa' (iv) 102-3. For a fuller account of this, see Sell, Faith of Islam (4th ed.), p. 380.