the worlds' (الحمد لله رب العالمين), the bird will come to life again, and, flying into the air, will boastfully say to all the birds in paradise, 'Who is like me, whose flesh God's friend has eaten?'

In short, the paradise of the Muslims, together with its bliss and delights, is such as is described in this short account. This is clear from Suratu'l-Qital (xlvii) 1 and Suratu'l-Waqi'a (lvi) 2 and other passages in the Qur'an, and from the Traditions (احاديث) which are fully stated and recorded in the 'Ainu'l-Hayat (عين الحيوة), pp. 167-71, the Haqqu'l-Yaqin (حق اليقين), pp. 201-8, the Hayatu'l-Qulub (حيوة القلوب), p. 107, the Mishkatu'l-Masabih (مشكوة المصابيح) in the chapter entitled ' Description of Paradise and its People,' and in other such books. Whoever will read these passages will perceive and know that the Muslim paradise is such, as we have briefly described it above.

Now it is evident that such a paradise is entirely carnal and sensual. And, although amid the rewards mentioned in Muslim books the vision of God is sometimes referred to, as in the Qur'an itself in one passage 3 yet when we remember that this Vision of God is associated with all these carnal pleasures, it is clear that such a beatific vision is not considered as possible only to the pure in heart. 4 The mention of the vision of God Most Holy in

1 Also called Suratu Muhammad. 2 Sura lvi.
3 Sura lxxv. 22- 3 وجوه يومئذ ناضرة الىا ربها ناظرة 4 Matt. v. 8.



connexion with such sensual delights is degrading to the reader's conception of God. There can be no question that the chief happiness of paradise, in the opinion of Muslims, is the enjoyment of the carnal pleasures which have been mentioned. This is evident, for example, from the Traditions which Kalini has related on the authority of Imam Baqir: see the Haqqu'l-Yaqin (حق اليقين), pp. 206, 207, and the 'Ainu'l-Hayat (عين الحيوة), p. 15. But the same thing is clearly taught in the Traditions and other theological books of the Sunnis as well as in those of the Shi'ites, and in this respect, as has been pointed out above, the testimony of such works is in agreement with the teaching of the Qur'an itself. In the books which we have mentioned it is stated, for instance, that when a Muslim enters his abode in paradise, the angel who guards his dwelling there will ask leave to come into his presence to welcome and congratulate him: but his slaves and attendants will say to the angel: 'The friend of God is reclining on his couch, and the Huri his spouse is with him: stay here until he is disengaged, and wait patiently.' The Huri and the Musalman will remain together in company for a period equal to 500 years of this world's time, nor will they grow weary of one another. After that, the gracious Lord will send a thousand angels to congratulate that Muslim and to wed him to the Huri. When they arrive, these angels will say to