clear to those who study the Old Testament and the New. Whoever, therefore, before Christ's advent took part in the sacrifices which were offered according to the Law of Moses, and was duly attentive to the prophecies to which we have referred, he became in some degree aware of the fact that salvation was offered through the merits and sufferings of the Promised Messiah, who would be led like a lamb 1 to the slaughter, and who was to be wounded for man's transgressions and bruised for our iniquities, upon whom the chastisement of our peace was to be, and by whose stripes we were to be healed.2 That the meaning of such prophecies was not concealed from the most earnest and spiritually minded of the Israelites is clear from many passages in their Targums, which, though of later date than Christ's Incarnation, show what the pious Israelites believed long before. Those who thus believed in the Promised Messiah founded their hopes upon Him, and thus through faith in Him obtained remission of sins and salvation, and became accepted by God. Referring to this, Christ Himself said to the Jews: 'Your 3 father Abraham rejoiced to see my day; and he saw it, and was glad' It was by faith that Abraham, the friend of God (خليل الله), saw the coming of Christ, through whom he had been told that all the families of the earth would be blessed, as has already been said. Accordingly, just as

1 Isa. liii. 7; cf. John i. 29. 2 Isa. liii 5. 3 John viii. 56.



before Christ's coming, those who believed in Him obtained salvation through their faith, so now, since His incarnation, salvation is dependent on the same faith and is therefore obtained by the very same means. There is only this difference, that before His appearance godly men put their trust in the atonement which Christ was about to make in the future, and now, after His coming, they trust in the atonement which He has made for them.

If any one ask, 'Was it not possible for the All-Wise and Almighty God to effect men's salvation by some other means than through the method which necessitated the suffering and death of Christ?' the reply is that evidently the Almighty can do anything which pleases him, and no one has power to set limits to His infinite and boundless wisdom and might. But, although there is no limit to God's will, yet it is morally impossible that God should ever wish or do anything contrary to His own most holy will, nature and attributes. This is confirmed by reason and logic. Therefore, since God, of His infinite mercy, has resolved upon offering a way of salvation to sinful men, it is evident that the method of salvation which He appoints must be in accordance with His love and mercy and in agreement with his holiness and justice. Since, therefore, the Creator, in accordance with His limitless wisdom, has appointed Christ's incarnation, His suffering and His atoning death, as the means of man's salvation, it is quite evident from this very fact that precisely