that the second statement above referred to is not accurate.

What is said on this subject in the Qur'an is quite in accord with the Traditions, whether we turn to those of the Sunnis or to those accepted by the Shi'ites. Some of the former we have already quoted at the beginning of this third section of the present chapter. To these we may add the following: In, the Mishkatu'l-Masabih, 1 book of the fixed prayers (الصلوة), chapter on prostration (السجود), Muslim gives this Tradition from Abu Huraira: 'The Prophet used to say in his prostration, "O God, pardon me my offence, all of it, its little and its great, and its first and its last, and its evident and its concealed."' In the book of the names of God, chapter on asking forgiveness, 2 Muslim gives the Tradition that Muhammad said, 'Verily I indeed ask pardon of God a hundred times in the day.' In the same book, in the chapter of seeking refuge, Muslim states on 'Ayisha's authority that Muhammad used to say, 'O 3 God, I take refuge in Thee from the torment of the fire and the calamity of the fire and the calamity of the tomb and the torment of the tomb . . . . O God, wash away my sins with water of snow and ice, and cleanse my heart as the white robe is cleansed from defilement, and part my sins from me as far as Thou hast parted the east from the west.'

1 Mishkat, p. 76. 2 Mishkat, p. 195. 3 Op. cit., p. 208.



If we now turn to the books of the Shi'ites we find similar Traditions. We content ourselves with quoting only a few of these. In the Hayatu'l-Qulub, 1 Imam Ja'far says that one night Muhammad, while praying in Umm Salma's apartment, began to weep and to say, 'O Lord; never dispose me towards evil, since thou hast delivered me from evil.' Thereupon Umm Salma said to him: 'God has pardoned all thy past and future sins; why then dost thou speak thus, and why dost thou weep?' In the same book it is related on the authority of Imam Muhammad Baqir that one 2 night Muhammad, being in 'Ayisha's abode, continued for a long time at prayer. Ayisha said to him: 'God has forgiven thee all thy past and future sins, why then dost thou take so much trouble?' Muhammad replied: 'O 'Ayisha, should I not be God's grateful slave?' In the same book it is related 3 that one day Muhammad in the presence of his people, having delivered an address (خُطبة), after praising God gave admonition to men, and finally confessed his sins and said: 'O Lord, pardon me and my people. He added: 'I ask forgiveness from God for myself and for you.'

From the Qur'anic verses and the Traditions which we have quoted, therefore, it is clear and indisputable that Muhammad confessed his own sinfulness and asked pardon for it. But, even were this not so, there could still be no doubt that

1 Vol. ii., p. 75. 2 Op. cit., p. 77. 3 Op. cit., p. 301..