well subdued, attains tranquillity (samadhi), In tranquillity all his sufferings are laid aside, for the tranquil-minded man's intellect quickly becomes established.' He adds: 1 'The man who, having abandoned all desires, walks devoid of longings, indifferent, free from egoism, he attains rest (santi). This is the divine (brahmi) state: . . . having attained it one is not bewildered: having taken his stand in that, exactly at death does one reach extinction in the divine' (brahma).

Some Hindu philosophers even at the present time live alone in the forests, some in solitary cells; some do not speak a word for years; some stretch one hand above their heads and keep it thus extended night and day, until it withers and remains fixed in that position. Some sit in the full blaze of the summer sun, between four fires, one on each side; some attach to their necks iron collars with sharp points; some have iron hooks fastened into the flesh of their backs and swing on them high in the air. All this is done with the hope of attaining merit, escaping from transmigration, and ultimately becoming absorbed into the divine. A Brahman one day was seen to hang himself head downwards from the branch of a tree, under which he had caused a fire to be kindled. When asked why he subjected himself to such suffering, he replied, 'To escape from the tortures of hell'. One of these ascetics resolved upon making a pilgrimage

1 Bhagavad Gita, Book II, verses 71-2.

to a sacred place. He put on shoes into which he had driven from underneath the sole-pointed nails, and started on his journey. On the way his feet were severely wounded by the nails. He became very feeble through the pain and loss of blood, and was able to proceed only very slowly. One day it happened that he came to a crowd of men gathered together under the shade of a tree. A Christian was preaching the Gospel to them and just at that moment was expounding the Lord Jesus Christ's words, 'God 1 so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have everlasting life.' The ascetic (Yogi) sat listening to these words. By God's grace they made such an impression on him that he threw away his shoes and said, 'I have found Him whom I sought,' and, having learnt the truths of the holy Scriptures from the preacher, he finally became a Christian.

We have now seen what are the means which the Hindus, in accordance with their religion and their philosophies, fancy to be those by which they can gain salvation. Every wise and kind-hearted man must pity them for having been thus deceived and having gone so far astray from the truth as to fancy that, by the methods which we have mentioned, they can gain salvation. It is for this reason that true Christians feel it incumbent upon them to preach the Gospel to the Hindus, in accordance

1 John iii. 16.