parents to drown one or more of their children in the Ganges, or in some other sacred stream; as a sacrifice to the goddess of that river. Human sacrifices to other gods and goddesses, especially to the bloodthirsty Kali or Durga, were not uncommon. Even during the present century some such crimes have been committed in Nipal and other less known parts of the country. Thus certain Hindu sects sought to please the demons whom they consider gods by committing terribly heinous sins. This surely is not the way to obtain salvation.

Another evil practice inculcated by modern Hinduism, though contrary to the teaching of the Rig-Veda, was that of burning widows alive along with the dead bodies of their husbands. For most sects of Hindus burn dead bodies instead of burying them, reserving burial for the corpses of men whom they suppose to have acquired special merit by great austerities. Several of the Hindu sacred books teach that a widow, by being burnt alive with her husband's body, ensures her admission along with him into paradise, and that she even brings salvation to her own ancestors and ancestresses. This doctrine was earnestly taught by the Brahmans. Although the Government have now, for a long time, prohibited this wicked practice, Hindus still desire to observe it for their religion, as they believe, commands it. Widow-burning would be practised again throughout India, were the law to permit it. The


false teaching of the Hindu faith is still unchanged in that respect.

Although there are six schools of Hindu philosophy recognized as orthodox, besides others which are called heretical, yet the whole six agree in accepting certain doctrines as true. None of these philosophical systems opposes idolatry. Among the points on which they all agree are the following six:—

(1) The transmigration of the soul.
(2) Its immortality.
(3) That suffering is due to lack of true knowledge.
(4) That all thoughts, words and deeds must bear fruit according to their kind, good or bad, throughout all ages, until their effect is thoroughly exhausted.
(5) That the Veda is a divine revelation.
(6) That the three qualities (gunas), darkness (tamas), activity or passion (rajas), and goodness (sattva) are the constituents of all that 1 exists.

One of the most popular systems of philosophy in India at present is known as the Yoga. It aims not only at suppression of the senses but also at that of thought and the attainment of a calm which cannot be ruffled by any means. It teaches that, by ascetic practices and self-absorption and complete abstraction from everything without, the human

1 See Max Müller, Six Systems of Indian Philosophy, pp. 104-112 (chapter iii).