part of his nature. Only through Satan's deceit and guile did they enter into man, and through him they spread throughout the whole world, as has been fully explained above.

But here another question must of necessity arise: Whence came Satan? Did God create him in that Satanic condition? Truly man would be unable to answer this question, had not information on the subject been given in holy Scripture. For man's understanding cannot discover matters connected with the other world. But from the New Testament we can reply by saying that the Lord Jesus Christ, when speaking to those of the Jews who opposed Him, spoke thus: 'Ye 1 are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father it is your will to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father thereof.' And similarly it is written in the Epistle of St. Jude: 'Angels 2 which kept not their own principality, but left their proper habitation, he hath kept in everlasting bonds under darkness unto the judgement of the great day." And again in the Second Epistle of St. Peter it is written: 'God 3 spared not angels when they sinned, but cast them down to hell, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved unto judgement.' From these verses it is quite clear that

1 John viii. 44. 2 Jude verse 6. 3 2 Pet, ii. 4.

God created Satan and the devils not evil and wicked but good and pure, like all His creatures. But when, after being created, they did not remain in truth and right but transgressed, and did not retain their high position, they fell from the dignity and glory and happiness in which God had created them, and, having turned away from God and become sinful and alienated from Him, they became altogether sunk in wickedness, misery and darkness.

From holy Scripture, however, it is not clear at what time this happened, how long after their creation, or how long before the creation of this world. About this matter, too, man can say nothing by means of his own intellect. But, from the verses of the New Testament quoted above and from those passages of the Law of Moses which we have mentioned in connexion with Adam's creation and his sin, it is clear and certain that Satan's sin occurred not after but before Adam was made.

This differs from the opinion common among Muslims and founded in the main upon Traditions (Ahadith), though perhaps also on what is said in the Qur'an [Suratu'l-Baqara (ii) 28-32; Suratu'l-Hajr (xv) 28-42; Suratu'l-Kahf (xviii) 48]. This view is that the angels were displeased at Adam's creation, and, when God informed them that He was about to place a vicegerent upon earth, asked of Him: 'Wilt Thou place there one who will act corruptly therein and shed blood? But we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness.' God