as it is written in the Law of Moses that, when God at Mount Sinai appeared to the children of Israel and gave Moses the Ten Commandments written upon two tablets1 of stone, He stated in the tenth commandment that covetousness and evil desire are sins. That commandment is thus written: 'Thou2 shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.' And in just the same way the Lord Jesus Christ Himself says: 'Ye3 have heard that it was said, Thou shalt not commit adultery: but I say unto you, that every one that looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.' And it is said: 'God4 shall judge the secrets of men . . . by Jesus Christ'.

As the external sin results from the internal sin, that is, from evil wish and thought, it is evident that the source and spring of every sin is man's own heart, according as the Lord Jesus Christ says: 'The5 things which proceed out of the mouth come forth out of the heart; and they defile the man. For out of the heart come forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, railings: these are the things which defile the

1 Exod. xx. 1-21; xxiv. 12; xxxi. 18. 2 Exod. xx. 17.
3 Matt. v. 27-8. 4 Rom. ii. 16. 5 Matt. xv. 18-20.

man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not the man.'1

It should be known that the nature of every sin is like that of the sin of Adam, the father of mankind. There is only this difference, that now it occurs in man more easily because, having taken form within man, sin becomes evident and accomplished in outward act, in such a way that this material world with its carnal pleasure and honour arouses in man's heart sensual longing, and Satan too tries to beguile men with evil thoughts and deluding lies, and thus man is tempted. But man does not become a sinner solely through temptation and through evil thoughts and suggestions being presented to his mind, for he cannot in any way hinder them from being excited, nor can he prevent Satan from tempting him, just as Adam was unable to hinder the temptation presented by Satan. But man becomes guilty and a sinner in the sight of the wise and righteous God when he does not reject and shrink at all from those evil thoughts and imaginations which arise in his heart, but agreeing and consenting to them gives them a place in his heart and seeks to carry them into practice. And, if man in this manner sins within himself, it is certain that, when he obtains power and opportunity and when there is no fear of loss and disgrace and reproach from doing so, he will openly commit his inward sin. From what has

1 Cf. Mark vii. 18-23.