body could not bring his spirit to any other condition than that of eternal misery and destruction. In short, sin has involved man in inward and outward death and eternal ruin, and this is the portion of all his descendants too, as it is written in the New Testament: 'Through 1 one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin; and so death passed unto all men, for that all sinned.' That is to say, in Adam, who is the head of the chain of humanity, the poison of sin entered into and corrupted human nature, and therefore all men, as his descendants, inherit a sinful nature, commit sin, and become liable to God's wrath. And, just as a bad tree cannot bring forth good 2 fruit, so it is impossible that, after Adam and Eve's fall into sin and loss of their original dignity and happiness, their children too should not, like them, become involved in sin, or should be born in any other state. An evidence of this is what is written: 'Adam 3 . . . begat a son in his own likeness, after his image', that is to say, not like what Adam had originally been but like what he was in the latter state in which Adam lived at the time of his son's birth.

The second result which came to Adam and Eve from their sin was shame and fear. Up to that time their hearts were in peace and unaware of the existence of fear and dread. But, after their disobedience, they fell into a state of great unrest

1 Rom. v. 12. 2 Matt, vii. 17-18. 3 Gen.v. 3.

and terror. And, since their outward parts, that is their bodies, had become changed like their inward parts, and sin had destroyed them, therefore their bodies now afforded them inducements to sin. Hence they became ashamed of being naked, and, instead of repenting and asking help and forgiveness from God, they desired to heal themselves by themselves. Therefore, having concealed themselves among the trees of the garden, they made for themselves aprons of fig-leaves 1 in order that in this way they might conceal their sin and disgrace, and might afterwards once more do right. And to such a degree did they then begin to fear the merciful God, whom up to that time they had loved with all their hearts, with whom they had associated and enjoyed nearness, and whom they had regarded as their true friend, that they desired to hide themselves from God, who knows what is hidden, and who is ever present and sees everything. Yea, from this matter it is clearly evident that, on account of that sin, they had become so much alienated from God and their condition had become so changed and altered through inner darkness that, if God of His infinite kindness had not helped them, they would assuredly have been unable to repent and return to Him, but would have been involved in the same miserable state as Satan himself. But, since God had from eternity, of His own will and pleasure, as well as of His boundless

1 Gen. iii. 7.