love. Hence it is that from man more can be recognized of God's attributes than from God's other creatures. And it is evident that God's glory and His attributes in general were much more visible in man originally (that is to say, before sin had vitiated and destroyed Adam's nature), than ever afterwards. For, when first created, man was free from fault and defect, and internally he felt no unrest or conflict between good and evil. His knowledge of God was, of course, limited, for no creature can attain to perfect knowledge of his almighty and all-wise Creator; but it was true knowledge though imperfect, and he loved his God and desired only to do His will. On this account he enjoyed inward union (علاقة) and true friendship with his Creator, and possessed perfect happiness. And, if man had not sinned, he would have advanced still further in that blissful state and position, and would have at last attained perfection of happiness and glory. As Adam's spirit was at first free from fault, so his body also was originally free from disease. Accordingly, had he not fallen into sin, he would not have been liable to death. In consequence of his position he was then able, in accordance with God's command, to rule over the earth and all animals, and thus fulfil God's will with regard to them. It should be known that the authority which man at the beginning exercised over the brutes was quite different from that which he afterwards had and now possesses, since at first his rule was that of kindness


and goodwill. But when man disobeyed God, the animals revolted against man in their turn, and so at the present time man rules them only by strength of arm and by the help of various means, and they merely fear man, as it is written 'And 1 the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air; with all wherewith the ground teemeth, and all the fishes of the sea, into your hand are they delivered.' The place, too, where Adam and Eve lived in the beginning was specially adapted to their condition. God had planted in Eden a garden with fruit bearing trees for them, and had placed Adam there that he might 'dress 2 it and keep it.' By the use of the word 'keep', God pointed out to Adam that there was an enemy to man and to the Garden of Eden, and that it behoved him to be on his guard against him.

If you inquire where the Garden of Eden was, we cannot now tell with absolute certainty, for doubtless the surface of the earth underwent much change during Noah's flood, traces of which may still be found in many different parts of the world, as many learned men think. We have learnt from the ancient inscriptions found at Babylon and elsewhere in Mesopotamia that in very ancient times the name of the great plain in which Babel was afterwards built was Eden, a word which in the earliest known human language means an uninhabited plain. There is every reason to think that the Garden

1 Gen. ix. 2. 2 Gen. ii. 15.