course of which he used this quotation from the Corân: "Whomsoever the Lord desireth to guide, he shall be guided aright; and whomsoever the Lord shall mislead, thou shalt not find for him a patron, nor any guide."1 "God forbid!" cried a Christian priest from the crowd, interrupting the Caliph, and shaking his raiment in token of indignant dissent; "the Lord doth not mislead any one, but desireth rather the right direction of all." Omar inquired what that Christian "enemy of the Lord" was saying. He saith, replied the people, that "God misleadeth no one." Omar resumed his discourse, and a second time the priest interrupted him at the obnoxious words. Omar was angry, and said: "By the Lord! if he repeat this again, I will surely behead him upon the spot." So the Christian held his peace, and Omar proceeded: "Whom the Lord guideth, him none can mislead; and whom the Lord misleadeth, for him there is no guide."2 The story, at any rate, represents the popular sentiment. There can be no doubt that predestination in its most necessary and unconditional sense, is the natural impression derived from the teaching of the Corân.

The legislative provisions of the Corân need not here be discussed at any length. The great bulk relate naturally to subjects which engrossed the attention of Mahomet and his followers—the relation of the sexes, and the laws of inheritance. With certain

1 Suras IV., 90[88], 142[143]; XVII., 99[97]; XVIII., 6[17].
2 "Futooh al Shâm," p. 226, and "Conquest of Syria," p. 261. Calcutta: 1854. Both works are spurious; but the story may be accepted as illustrating the creed derived from the Corân.


exceptions—such as mutilation for robbery; the law of retaliation, which places the sword in the hand of the victim's representative; stoning for adultery (which, however, stands on tradition, and does not appear in the Corân itself); and several very objectionable limitations in the law of evidence,—the code contains nothing greatly open to question. The embargo on usury indeed, if rigorously pressed, must embarrass the prosecution of merchandise and national projects. Personal liberty has also been trenched upon by the interdict of all games of chance, which has aggravated the austerity and gloom of society already resulting from female seclusion. The same may be said of the prohibition of wine, which, however, along with the penalty of stripes for drunkenness, will not be objected to, perhaps may even be applauded, by some.

The institutions most damaging to the welfare of Islâm are, without doubt; polygamy, divorce, slavery, and the obligation to war against unbelievers. War, according to the Corân, is to be waged against the heathen. The fighting men are to be slain, the women and children reduced to slavery. Jews and Christians are more leniently dealt with; but even these are to be fought against, slain, and reduced to slavery, until they pay tribute and are humbled. Although, therefore, the privilege is conceded of continuing, upon submission, to profess their ancestral faith, Jews and Christians are reduced in the body politic, and disabilities imposed to mark their humiliation. The blot cannot be obliterated. It is wrought into the life and institutions of Islâm, and, so long as