(8th and 9th century) philosophical theologians who attempted to give a rational interpretation of basic beliefs, see also Al-Razl, Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina.

One of the best known controversies of the Mu'tazilites with the orthodox Muslims was the issue whether the Qur'an is eternal or created. For details, see the article God, His Word, and the Qur'an in Islam.

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