understanding, later a body of law, Islamic jurisprudence. Islamic law as interpreted by scholars (furqaha, jurists), the science of elaborating on the Shar'ia. The main developments took place in the second century A.H., and since then has developed into many different schools or systems, some of them conflicting. Four main schools (madhab, pl. madahib) developed around the four cities of Mecca, Medina, Basra and Kufa.

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