In Sura Ali 'Imran (iii) 106, 'Ye are the best nation that hath been raised up unto mankind: ye enjoin the just and forbid the evil.' For 'nations' read 'Imams,' that is, for اُممه read ائمة The Shi'ahs support their reading by saying that the description given of the enjoining and the forbidding applies more correctly to the Imams as rulers than to a nation in its corporate capacity.

In Sura al-Furqan (xxv) 74, 'O our Lord! give us in our wives and offspring the joy of our eyes and make us examples to those that fear Thee.' For 'make us examples to those that fear Thee'— اجعلنا للمتقين اماماً read 'make for us Imams, from those that fear Thee,'— اجعل لنا من المتقين اماماً that is, from 'Ali and his descendants.

In Sura ar-Ra'd (xiii) 12, 'Each one has angels before him and behind, who watch over him by God's order.' The Shi'ahs read 'Each one has angels behind him and guardians ( رقيب ) who watch over him by God's order.'

In Sura al-Hud (xi) 20, '(With such can they be compared) who rest upon clear proofs from their Lord; to whom a witness from him reciteth (the Qur'an) preceded by the Book of Moses, a guide and mercy.' 1 The other reading is, 'To whom a witness from him a guide and mercy, reciteth (the Qur'an), preceded by the Book of Moses.'2 This witness, according to this reading, is the 'guide and mercy,' and is 'Ali who comes from him, that is, Muhammad. Thus it is not, as in the received text, the Book of Moses which is the 'guide and mercy.' One day after 'Ali had finished his sermon a member of the congregation said to him, 'which verse of the Qur'an refers to thee?' 'Ali replied, 'Hast thou not read the verse "who rest upon clear proofs from their Lord: to whom a witness, a guide and mercy, reciteth the Qur'an preceded by the Book of Moses."' This tradition is accepted by Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi.3 The whole verse is a difficult one. It is a very good example of a mujmal verse, as it contains words, to which different meanings may be given.4 Some say that the 'who' is Muhammad or Jewish

أَفَمَن كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّهِ وَيَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِّنْهُ وَمِن قَبْلِهِ كِتَابُ مُوسَى إَمَامًا وَرَحْمَةً
وَيَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِّنْهُ إَمَامًا وَرَحْمَةً وَمِن قَبْلِهِ كِتَابُ مُوسَى
3 Journal Asiatique, Decembre, 1842, p. 412.
4 Faith of Islam (3rd ed.), p. 74.

converts to Islam, or Muslims in general: that the 'clear proof' is the Qur'an or Muhammad, or the true religion; that the 'witness' is Muhammad or 'Ali or Abu Bakr, or the Qur'an or Gabriel, who came from Him (God) and recited the Qur'an to Muhammad. In this case 'Him' means God and not Muhammad.1

In Sura al-Muminun (xxiii) 39, 'There is no life beyond our present life; we die and we live and we shall not be quickened again.' The Shi'ahs say that the order must be inverted—'we live and we die.' 2

(iii) Verses defective in respect of their order.

Sura al-Baqara (ii) 58: 'He (Moses) said, "What, will ye exchange that which is worse for what is better? Get ye down into Egypt, for ye shall have what ye asked."' It is said that in the correct and true Qur'an these words were immediately followed by others, now found in Sura al-Ma'ida (v) 23: 'They said, "O Moses! Therein are men of might and verily we can by no means enter in until they be gone forth."'

In Sura al-Furqan (xxv) 6 the opponents of Muhammad say of the Qur'an, 'Tales of the Ancients hath he put in writing and they were dictated to him morning and evening.' It is said that in the original Qur'an these words were followed by a passage now found in Sura al-'Ankabut (xxix) 47, in which God says to Muhammad, 'Thou didst not recite any book (of revelation) before it; with that right hand of thine thou didst not transcribe one.'

But the most serious charge of all is that of the omission of a whole Sura, called the Sura an-Nurain, or 'Two Lights,' by which Muhammad and 'Ali are meant. It is as follows:

'In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.

'O ye who believe, believe in the two lights we have sent down, who have recited our signs and warned you of the punishments of the Last Day. These two lights (proceed) the one from the other.3 Truly, I am the Hearer, the Knower.

1 Khulasatu't-Tafasir, vol. ii, p. 383; Baidawi, vol. i, p. 431; Tafsir-i Husaini, vol. i, p. 298.
2 i.e., for
نموت ونحيى read نحيى ونموت
3 A reference to the Shi'ah interpretation of Sura Hud (xi) 20, according to which 'Ali proceeds from Muhammad.