time it may also be admitted that where Islam is modified by contact with higher civilizations, as in India, the spirit of intolerance which the Sura At-Taubah (ix) inculcates is much lessened. Amongst Muslims of the new school a friendly spirit towards men of other creeds is becoming more and more common: but this is a welcome departure from its earliest principles.

Prayer for unbelievers, though relatives, is now forbidden, yet Abraham prayed for his father thus: 'Forgive my father, for he was one of the erring.' Sura Ash-Shu'ara' (xxvi) 86. The tolerant attitude of earlier days was now set aside, still the alteration had to be explained and the next verse attempts to justify this new position of intolerance.

This idea of the sacred war incumbent upon all the faithful was only gradually arrived at. This conception that all 'the religion should be of God,' that Islam should be supreme, was a grand one, and as political power increased it took clearer shape in the Prophet's mind. He had now left far behind such sentiments as

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from this very Sura, the ninth, he entirely omits these verses (29-35) which run directly counter to the whole argument of his book. Stanley Lane-Poole considers, that 'these later denunciations probably annul the more favourable judgements elsewhere expressed' (Studies in a Mosque, p 155). It is a fact that Christians do say, 'The Messiah is a Son of God.' Muhammad advocated no peaceful method with such, but said, 'God do battle with them,' and this towards the close of his mission and in his old age, with thoughts well matured and plans formed. A Tradition recorded by Waqidi states that on his death-bed Muhammad said, 'The Lord destroy the Jews and Christians.' But it is not necessary to press this point, for the Tradition may not be one of much authority. The latest revelations of the Qur'an itself are quite enough, as I have shown, to reveal the Prophet's final attitude of uncompromising hostility to all who differed from him. See Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. iv, p. 270.

were expressed at the latter part of the Meccan period:—

Dispute ye not, unless in kindliest sort, with the people of the Book. Sura Al-'Ankabut (xxix) 45.1

He had forgotten the excellent advice he once gave to his followers, some seven or eight years previously, when they first came to Madina and were feeling their way with Jews, Christians and pagans. He then said:—

Let there be no compulsion in religion. Sura Al-Baqarah (ii) 257.2

1 Ante, p. 80.
لا اِكرَاه فِى الّدِيْنِ  It is said that this does not touch the general law about the enforcement of the jizya, or poll-tax, of imprisonment and for renegades the penalty of death; but refers to the special case of two Christians, who did not wish to become Muslims. 'A certain man named Hasin had two sons who were Christians and did not wish to become Muslims, this (verse) shows that there was to be no compulsion.'
حصين ناسى ايكث مردكى دو لزكى نصرانى تهى اور اسلام بر راهى نهوتى تو ارهاد هواكة دين مين جبرنهين
Khalasatu't-Tafasir, vol. i, p. 202.
Husain says that it refers to the two sons of one of the Ansar, named Abu'l-Hasin, who were led away by a Syrian fire-worshipper. The father wished to use force to restrain them; but Muhammad forbade it and told him not to interfere with any one 'firm in religion.'
ابو الحصين انصارى دو بسرِ قابل داشت ناكاة ترساى ازشام بة مدينة آسد با او مصاحبت نمودند بوجة فسون وفسائة وى مغرور كشتة ودين ترسائى اختيار كردند وهمراة او متوجة شام شدند ابو الحصين از حضرت رسالت بناة دستورى خواست تا برود و ايشان را باكراة شر ع باز آرد واين آيت نازل شد كة اِكراة مكنيد كسى راكة بدينى متدين شدة است
He says further that it applies to Christians, Jews, Magians and the Sabians (ante, p. 84), provided that they pay the jizya, or poll-tax; but that as regards the Arabs, who refuse to become Muslims, it is abrogated by the 'verse of the killing' which reads 'kill them wherever ye shall find them.'. Sura Al-Baqarah (ii) 187.
اِكراة هيجكس را از يهود ونصرانى ومجوس ومابيان ببر آوردن اسلام بشرط قبول جزية ـ كفتة اند حكم اين آيت بآيت قتال منسوخ است از تمام قبائل عرب جزدين اسلام قبول نبود
Tafsir-i-Husaini, vol. i, p. 48.
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