Fain would they put out God's light with their mouths:1 but God only desireth to perfect His light, albeit the infidels abhor it.
He it is who hath sent His Apostle with the guidance and a religion of the truth, that he may make it victorious over every religion,2 albeit they who assign partners to God be averse from it.
O Believers! of a truth, many of the teachers and monks do devour man's substance in vanity, and

يَرِيْدُونَ اَنْ يُّطْفِوأ نور الله باَفْوَاهِهِم
Husain says that this light is the 'Qur'an, or the prophetship of Muhammad, or the clear proof of his holiness and continence.'
قران است يا نبوت محمد را يا حجت روشنبر تقدس وتنزة او از زن
Tafsir-i-Husaini vol. i, p. 254.
Baidawi says it is the Qur'an or the prophetship of Muhammad and explains 'with their mouths' to mean 'with their polytheism and lies.'
Others say, 'It is a metaphor meaning God's light, or the true religion—Islam, or the pure Qur'an, or the Most Holy Presence.'
استعارة هى كة دين حق يا اسلام يا قران ياكث يا حضور اقدس
Khalasatu't-Tafasir, vol. ii, p. 242.
The Most Holy Presence is said to refer to Muhammad and to the nur-i-Muhammadi, to be a proof that 'the light of Muhammad and the religion of Ahmad is permanent and cannot be abolished.'
معلوم هواكة نور محمدى اور دين احمدى دائمى هى كسى كى متائى مت نة سكيكا
Khalasatu't-Tafasir, vol. ii, p. 213.
It is said that 'with their mouths' is a figurative expression to denote that by the lies they tell the true religion may be prevented from spreading.
هُوَ الَّذى اَرْسَلَ رَسُوْلَهُ بِالْهَدىا وَديْنِ الْحَقّ ِ ليُظْهِرَةُ عَلَى الْذِيْنِ كُلِّةِ
This is explained to mean that God has sent Muhammad with Islam, the true religion, and that it conquers all other religions, and abrogates their laws and that, after the descent of Jesus, there will be no religion but Islam in the world:—
وغالب كرداند دين خود را برهمة دينها ومنسوخ سازد احكام آنزا وآن بعد از نزول عيسىا خواهد بودكة بر روى زمين جز دين اسلام نماند
Tafsir-i-Husaini, vol. i, p. 254.
In the Khalasatu't-Tafasir, vol. ii, p. 243, we have the following statement:—
اسلام ناسخ الاديان وغالب البرهان
'Islam is the abrogator of religions and an evident conqueror.'
'Abdu'llah ibn 'Abbas says it means 'all religions whether of the past or yet to come.'

turn them from the way of God. But to those who treasure up gold and silver and expend it not in the way of God, announce tidings of a grievous torment;
On that day when it shall be heated in the fire of hell and their brows shall be branded therewith and their sides and their backs. Sura At-Taubah (ix) 29-35.1

These verses connected with the Prophet's last warlike expedition, an expedition entirely

1 This whole passage is one of such importance that I give the views of the commentator Husain at some length on it. He says:—
بكشيد اى مومنان وكارزاز كنيد بانكة ايمان ندارد بخداى يعنى يهود كة بة تثنية قائل اند ونصارى كة تثليت را معتقد اند نمى كروند بروند بروز قيامت يهود كويند كة در بهشت اكل وشرب نخواهد بود ونصارى معاد روحانى را اثبات ميكند ومحرم نميدانند انجة حرام كردة است خداى از خمر وخنزير وانجة حرام كودة است رسول او يعنى محرم نميدانند انجة حرمت او بكتاب وسنت ثابت شدة است ـ باهل كتاب مقاتلة كنيد تا وقتيكة بدهند جزية وحال آنكة ايشان خوار شد كان باشند يعنى جزية بدست آرند ونشينند تا وقتيكة تسليم كنند با ازيشان جزية بكيرند وكردن ايشان را بسيلى فرو كوبند
Tafsir-i-Husaini, vol. i, p. 253.
'O believers kill and fight those who do not believe in God, that is, the Jews who believe in Duality and the Christians who are believers in a Trinity; they do not accept the day of Judgement; and the Jews say that in Paradise there is no eating and drinking and the Christians affirm that it is only a spiritual state. They do not consider as unlawful that which God has made so, such as, leaven and pigs, and that which the Prophet has declared unlawful; that is, they do not consider unlawful that which in the Qur'an and the Sunna is proved to be so. You should fight with the people of the Book until they pay the jizya, and their state should be a very abject one, that is, they must pay the jizya with their own hand and not sit down until they have rendered obeisance; or take the jizya from them and with a slapping on the back of the neck beat them down.'
Here it is quite clear that the reference is not to the pagan Arabs but to Jews and Christians, and from this verse and especially the words 'they be humbled' has arisen the contemptuous treatment of the Dhmmis in Muslim lands. There is some difference of opinion as to the persons from whom the jizya may be taken. Imam Shafi'i says it can only be taken from the Jews and Christians; Imam A'gam says all polytheists should pay. He excepts the pagan Arabs; to whom is given only the choice between Islam and the sword (
يا تيغ است يا اسلام ). Imam Malik says it may be received from all infidels except apostates, and for them the order is death. The material nature of heaven is implied, and the co-ordinate authority of the Qur'an and the Sunna is maintained.
[Footnote continued onto next page]