change of the Qibla is openly stated in the verses:1

We appointed the Qibla, thou formerly hadst, only that we might know him who followeth the Apostle from him who turneth on his heels. The change is a difficulty, but not to those whom God hath guided. But God would not let your faith be fruitless for unto man is God merciful, gracious.
We have seen thee turning thy face towards every part of heaven; but we will have thee turn to a Qibla which shall please thee. Turn then thy face towards the sacred Mosque and, wherever ye be, turn your face towards that part. Sura Al-Baqarah (ii) 138-9.

The Traditionists relate many stories connected with this event in the Prophet's life. One is, that 'when he found the Jews obstinate he said to Gabriel, "I wish God would change the Qibla to the Ka'ba;" Gabriel replied, "Thou hadst better ask God thyself for thou art highly esteemed by Him." The Prophet after this always looked up to heaven, waiting for tidings to change the Qibla.'

The Ramadan fast, 2 also was now substituted for the one hitherto kept simultaneously with the Jewish fast.

As for the month Ramadan, in which the Qur'an was sent down to be man's guidance and an explanation

1 Nöldeke gives several authorities for the statement that even in Mecca Muhammad turned towards Jerusalem in prayer, but considers that these verses show that the Muslims in Madina did not like this custom and that therefore it was most probably a recent innovation. Geschichtes des Qorans, p. 129.
2 'The fasting is obligatory throughout the whole month, as long as the sun is above the horizon, both eating and drinking are absolutely forbidden. In oriental heat this is a severe burden, some can readily believe that in the month of the fast, towards the end of the day, the majority of the faithful are thinking much more about the enjoyments of the coming night than about God and the hereafter.' Nöldeke, Sketches from Eastern History, p. 65.

of that guidance, and of that illumination, as soon as any one of you observeth the moon let him set about the fast. Sura Al-Baqarah (ii) 181.

A stern warning is given to the Jews in:—

Those who conceal aught that we have sent down, either of clear proof or guidance, after what we have so clearly shown to men in the Book, God shall curse them, and they who curse shall curse them. Sura Al-Baqarah (ii) 154.1

Either in connexion with these charges or on more general grounds, some of the converts from Judaism desired still to observe portions of the Jewish Law. Husain says that Ibn Salam and his friends were converts to Islam who still wished to keep the laws of the Pentateuch. They are thus rebuked and warned:—

0 believers, enter completely into the true religion and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy; 2
But if ye lapse after that our clear signs have come to you, know that God is mighty, wise.
Ask the children of Israel how many clear signs we have given them; but if any man alter the gift of God,2 after it shall have reached him, certainly God will be vehement in punishing him. Sura Al-Baqarah (ii) 204-5, 207.

1 The book referred to is the Pentateuch. Those who conceal its meaning are to be cursed by God. 'Those who curse,' that is, angels, genii and men, will also curse them— Tafsir-i-Husaini, vol. i, p. 26. Tafsir-i-'Abdu'llah ibn 'Abbas, p. 29.
2 Commentators say that by 'the true religion' is meant Islam; by 'steps of Satan,' deceits of the devil, inducing the Jews to observe laws already abrogated—
وسواس شيطاني باحكام منسوخة Tafsir-i-Husaini, vol. ii, p. 35.
3 The
نعمة الله 'gift of God,' is said by some to refer to Muhammad; by others, and more correctly, to the Qur'an. Wherry, on the authority of the Tafsir-i-Raufi, refers it to Jewish Scriptures. Commentary on the Qur'an, vol. i, p. 315.