On the other hand, they were now won so rapidly that, when Muhammad advanced to attack Mecca in the eighth year after the Hijrah, he had an 1 army of 10,000 Muslims with him. In A.H. 9, on the expedition to Tabuk, he had 30,000 men. A little later, the Katibu'l Waqidi says of those sent by Abu Bakr on the Jihad to conquer Syria that they were so numerous that they "filled 2 the land" There can be no doubt that most of these men were animated more by their desire for the good things of this world than even for the sensual delights of the Muslim Paradise. This we shall see was the opinion of the Khalifah Al Ma'mun, among others. But some of those who professed belief in Islam, even in those early days, did so through compulsion and for the sake of saving their lives. For instance, many of the Jews living in or near Medinah became converted, but Ibn Ishaq 3 says that they "assumed the outward appearance of having accepted Islam, and they accepted it as a protection against slaughter". He mentions the names of a number of such 4 converts. That they had good reason to fear for their lives is proved by the fate of their brethren, the Banu Nadhir, the Banu Qainuqa', and the Banu Quraizah.

But it was not only Jews who had to choose between Islam and a violent death. After the conquest of Mecca in A.H. 8, many of the Quraish admitted that Muhammad's arms had prevailed, and as a matter of course became Muslims.5 Of Abd Sufyan's conversion we are given the following account.6 When he was taken prisoner, before the capture of the city, and brought into Muhammad's presence, the latter asked

1 Ibn Athir, vol. ii, p. 93.
2 Futuhu'sh Sham, vol. i, p. 6: (فنظر اليهم قد مَلؤا الارض) (Edition published at Safdari Press, Bombay, A. H. 1298.)
3 Siratu'r Rasul, vol. i, p. 183: (فظهروا بآلاْسلام وآْتّخذوهُ جُنّةَّ من آلْقتل)
4 Vol. i, p. 188.
5 Siratu'r Rasul, vol. ii, p. 211.
6 Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 215, and Ibn Athir, vol. ii, p. 93.

him whether he did not know that there was no god but God. This he admitted. He was then asked whether he acknowledged Muhammad to be God's Prophet. Abu Sufyan very courteously explained that up to that time he was still in some doubt on that point. Al 'Abbas thereupon said to him, "Woe to thee! Become a Muslim, and testify that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is God's Apostle, before thy head is cut off," Convinced by this forcible and logical argument, Abu Sufyan at once repeated the Kalimah, and became a Muslim. With him and by the same argument were converted his two companions in misfortune, Hakim ibn Kharram and Budail ibn Warqa.

Ibn Athir 1 tells us that a man named Bujair, who had spoken somewhat disrespectfully of Muhammad, nevertheless went to him and professed Islam. This man's brother, Ka'b ibn Jubair, hearing of this, wrote some verses against Muhammad. The latter thereupon became angry, and declared that Ka'b's blood might be shed with impunity. Bujair then wrote to his brother and told him to hasten and become a Muslim, and so anticipate Muhammad's determination to kill him. Ka'b immediately took this advice, and thereby saved his life.

Still lower inducements influenced many to profess faith in Muhammad. Al Waqidi 2 shows what one of these was in the following story: "The Apostle of God said, that he might incite the men and endear to them the Jihad and encourage them to it: 'Vie with me in speed to Syria; perchance you may get Al Asfar's daughters.' As they thought, Al Asfar had been one of these blacks ... He had perished in Byzantine territory, and had married of their women, and there were born to him men and women, the likeness of whom was never seen, but they became a proverb for their beauty. And when the Apostle of God mentioned to

1 Vol. ii, pp. 104, 105.
2 Al Maghazi, p. 144: referring to the Expedition to Tabuk.