acted the part of a relative in my being given in marriage, and, as for you, your relatives gave you in marriage.' And it is said that Zaid was the go-between in her betrothal, and that was a great trial, and an evident witness to the strength of his faith." From these last few words it is clear that Baizawi recognized to the full that such conduct on Muhammad's part naturally made not a few people doubtful of the truth of his claims.

The history of Muhammad's relations with Safiyyah, Rihanah, and some others of his wives and concubines is given in Ibn Hisham's Stratu'r Rasul, in Ibn Athir's History, in the Rauzatu's Safa, the Rauzatu'l Ahbab, and in other works written by Muslims themselves.1 It is not pleasant reading, nor is it very edifying or profitable, except as casting light upon Muhammad's moral character. But we content ourselves with what has been already said regarding this matter.

II. We now turn to the consideration of his manner of dealing with his enemies. Here again we mention only a few incidents out of many.

Ibn Hisham tells us how the Jewish tribe, the Banu Quraizah, surrendered themselves prisoners to Muhammad, and that the latter left the decision as to their fate in the hands of their wounded enemy, Sa'd ibn Mu'adh. Then the historian continues the tale as follows: "Sa'd 2 said, 'Then regarding them I adjudge that thou slay the men and divide the goods and enslave the children and the women.' Ibn Ishaq says, . . . The Prophet of God said to Sa'd, 'Thou hast judged concerning them with the judgement of God from above the seven heavens.' . . . Accordingly the Apostle of God imprisoned them in Medinah, in the house of the daughter of Harith, a woman of the

1 For example, about Safiyyah, see Waqidi's Kitabu'l Maghazi, pp. 132, 133.
2 Siratu'r Rasul, Part II, p. 148, also p. 75; Waqidi, Kitdbu'l Maghazi, pp. 125, 126.

Banu'n Najjar. Then the Apostle of God went out to the market-place of Medinah, which is its market-place today, and caused to be dug in it trenches. Then he sent for them and beheaded them in those trenches. They were brought forth unto him as sent for, and among them the enemy of God, Hayy bin Akhtab, and Ka'b ibn Asad, the chief of the tribe: and there were 600 or 700 of them. And he who estimates their number highest says that they were between 800 and 900. And while Ka'b ibn Asad was going with them to the Apostle of God, they said to him, 'O Ka'b what dost thou think that he will do with us?' He said ... 'Do ye not understand? Do ye not see the person who calls does not desist, and that whoso of you goes with him does not return? By God, it is a massacre.' And that state of affairs did not come to an end until the Apostle of God had finished with them. Hayy bin Akhtab, the enemy of God, was brought, and on him was a flower-coloured cloak of his ... When he saw the Apostle of God, he said, 'Indeed, by God, I have not reproached myself for hostility to thee; but whomsoever God forsaketh He forsaketh.' Then he came to the men and said, 'Men, verily there is no harm in God's command, a writing and a fate and a massacre which God has written concerning the Children of Israel.' Then he sat down and was beheaded ... 'Ayishah says: 'None of their women were slain, except one woman ... She was with me, talking with me, and laughing outwardly and inwardly while the Apostle of God was killing her men in the market-place, when a crier cried out her name: Where is such and such a woman? She said, It is I, by God. I said to her, Alas for thee, what is the matter with thee? She said, I shall be killed. I said, And why? She said, For the talk which I talk. Then she was taken off and beheaded.' 'Ayishah used to say, 'By God, I do not forget my surprise at her, the goodliness of her person and the abundance of her laughter, while