16, 21, 25. In the last passage (Ezek. xxiv. 16, "the desire of thine eyes") it is applied to a woman, Ezekiel's wife (compare ver. 18), and to the sons and daughters of the idolatrous Jews (ver. 25). It would be just as wise to apply the word to Muhammad here as in the Song of Songs. In Arabic many words are formed from the same root حمد, but they do not on that account denote Muhammad. An ignorant Muslim might just as well assert that Muhammad's name occurred in Surah i, Al Fatihah, ver. 1: Al hamdo lillahi Rabbi 'lalamin ("Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds"). In the same way a Hindu might assert that the name of Ram or some other of his deities was mentioned in the Qur'an, because in Surah xxx, Ar Rum, ver. 1, we read غُلِبَتِ الْرّوُمُ, "the Romans have been overcome," where Arabic dictionaries give Rum as if derived from the root ram. This kind of argument is unworthy of men of learning and judgement.

8. In Isaiah xxi. 7, Muslims hold that the words "a chariot1 (or troop) of asses" are a prediction of the coming of Christ, who entered Jerusalem riding on an ass, and that "a (troop or) chariot of camels" refers to Muhammad, since he always rode on a camel. But the context shows that this chapter refers to neither Christ nor Muhammad. It is a prophecy of the fall of Babylon, as we learn from verse 9, and tells how word is brought by travellers of the capture of the city and the destruction of its idols, which took place under Darius in 519 B.C., and again in 513 B.C.

9. Muslims fancy that in Isaiah xlii. 1-4, they can find a prophecy about Muhammad. But if we may believe the accounts given us by Ibn Hisham, At Tabari, Ibn Athir, the Katibu'l Waqidi, the Rauzatu's Safa, and other Muhammadan authors and works, the description of a man who was gentle and peaceable does not apply to him who is called "the Prophet with the Sword". Moreover in Matt. xii. 15-21, we are

1 ["A riding-party" would probably be the right word.]

distinctly told that the prophecy refers to Christ, and was fulfilled in Him. The Christian faith is that of the "isles" and coastlands of the Mediterranean, which are those primarily referred to in ver. 4.

10. In the same chapter (Isa. xlii) vers. 10, 11, 12, the mention of Kedar leads some to argue that this word means the Arabs, and hence that a reference is made to their conversion to Islam. But the "new song" in ver. 10 can hardly denote the new Muslim mode of worship, especially as no singing is permitted in it. Kedar was doubtless the name of one of the Arab tribes, but not a few of them (Himyar, Ghassan, Rabi'ah, Najran, Hirah, &c.) had embraced Christianity before they were compelled to become Muslims, or be expelled from Arabia. Doubtless they will be Christians again some day. These verses are a continuation of what is said in vers. 1-4, and must refer to the spread of Christianity even in Arabia, as we are told it would spread in the islands also, and among "ye that go down to the sea" (ver. 10). The expression "My Servant" in ver. 1 is explained in ch. xlix. 3, as meaning "Israel", that is, doubtless, the "Israel1 of God", those who believe in Christ. He Himself is the "Head2 of the body, the Church". Hence in Isa. lii. 13, the ancient Jewish commentators explain the same phrase as meaning the Promised Messiah. Christ came from Israel, and represented it. Muhammad did not.

11. Isa. liii. is also claimed as referring to Muhammad, because, (1) being born in Arabia, he was "a root out of a dry ground": (2) "they made his grave with the wicked," for he was buried in Medinah: (3) the words "he shall see his seed" were fulfilled regarding him. (4) he did "divide the spoil with the strong", that is, with the Ansars: (5) he fulfilled the words "he poured out his soul unto death", since he did undoubtedly die, while many Muslims deny Christ's death, and hold that He ascended to Heaven without dying. But (1) the whole of verses 5, 6, 7, 8, are absolutely

1 Gal. vi. 16.
2 Col. i. 18.