marred by sin, it is necessary that he should be formed again into a spiritual likeness to the Holy One before he can dwell with God in harmony and love and can enjoy the Divine Vision (رُوُيَةُ الله ـ ديدارِ إلَهي).

If in this matter we compare the doctrine of the Bible with that of the other religious books of the world, we find a great difference between them on this very point. For the books of other religions teach us nothing of God's design in creating man, nothing about the need of sanctification and purification of the human heart and spirit. They teach that purity results from ablutions of the body, that forgiveness of sins is obtained through pilgrimages or sacrifices or almsgiving. Now ablutions of the body are very suitable and desirable, but they cannot purify the heart. As Christ Himself says, it is not sufficient to cleanse the outside of the cup or platter and leave the inside defiled. "Cleanse first", He says, "the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside thereof may become clean also" (Matt. xxiii. 26). Good works, too, should result from love to God and conformity to His will and gratitude to Him for pardon and mercy. But almsgiving will not persuade God to forgive us our sins, for no just judge receives a bribe to pardon a criminal. The value of almsgiving and all other good works depends in God's sight on the motive with which they are undertaken, and no one can conceal his motives from Him who searches men's hearts.

In order that we may know God's Will and be able to obey Him, God Most High has given us much teaching both in the Old Testament and in the New. He has thus shown what we should do and what we should avoid. Hence, too, we find the Moral Law given in various short and simple enactments in different parts of the Bible. In the Torah are given the Ten Commandments (Exod. xx. 1-17; Deut. v. 6-21). In later days the Prophet Micah tells us that God’s law as to man's duty might be summed up thus: "He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good; and what


doth the LORD require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?" (Micah vi. 8). Ignorant people often assert that Christians have no law (شريعة) containing commands and prohibitions: but the fact that the Moral Law given in the Old Testament is binding upon us is a sufficient refutation of this statement. In the New Testament we have Christ's Law (شريعة) given us in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. v, vi, vii); and, besides this, He has summed up our duty for us in Mark xii. 28-31 and Luke vi. 31. Hence we see that He lays down general principles to guide us under all circumstances, instead of endeavouring, like all other lawgivers, to give particular directions for every circumstance that can arise. Whoever will attentively read Rom. xii, xiv. 1-8; I Cor. xiii; Eph. v. 1-21; Col. iii. 1-iv. I will perceive how high and holy a Way has been appointed for Christians to walk in. We are told to wash our hearts before praying, not merely our hands; not to make a pilgrimage (حجّ) once in our lives, but to be always strangers and pilgrims on earth, having no continuing city here, but ever seeking the one which is to come, and always drawing nearer to God in holiness; not to pray five or seven times a day but to "pray without ceasing" (I Thess. v. 17), i.e. so to live that we may always be in spiritual communion with God; not to offer sacrifices of dead animals, as did the Jews, but ourselves to be "living sacrifices, holy, acceptable to God" (Rom. xii. 1, 2; I Pet. ii. 5). From this it will be evident that the precepts of the New Testament, even more than those of the Old, are in full accordance with the glorious Attributes of the Holy and Most Merciful Lord, because they enjoin and conduce to purity of heart and of life. It will also be clear that without these things all merely external rites are valueless in God's sight, and cannot produce righteousness or lead to justification. Therefore the precepts of the Gospel stand far above the ordinances of every other religion, because they are specially fitted