Into the Latin language in early times a large number of translations of parts of the New Testament were made. Mention of these is found in the writings of Augustine and Jerome. The latter tells us that in some cases these versions were not very correct, owing to the ignorance of the people who made them for their own use. The best of these translations was the Itala or Old Latin Version, which belongs to the second century. Owing, however, to the need of having a more correct translation in Latin, Jerome translated the New Testament into that language between 383 and 385 A.D. We possess at least 8,000 MSS. of this translation. It is called the Vulgate (التّرجمة العاميّة) Latin Version. Some of these MSS. date from the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries. Hence not only was the Bible translated into Latin long before the Hijrah, but even several of the MSS. which we have of that translation were quite old in Muhammad's time.

We have already said, in speaking of the Old Testament, that in very early times versions of it were made into three different dialects of the Coptic language. The same is true with regard to the New Testament. The Buhairic (البُحَيْرِي) version was made between the third and the fourth century, the Sa'idic (الصَعِيدي) probably about the same time. The third or Bushmuric (البُشْمُورِي) dialect was subdivided into three sub-dialects, the Fayumic (الفيومي), the Lower Sa'idic, and the Akhmimic (الاخميمي). Into each of these a version of part or the whole of the New Testament was made. The Sa'idic version is probably the oldest of all. The oldest MSS. of the Coptic New Testament belong to the fourth and fifth centuries.

The Gothic version was made about 360 A.D. The MS. in which it is preserved was written in the fifth or sixth century.

Besides the MSS. of the Bible in various languages, we have also other evidence of a valuable kind to show that our present Old Testament and New Testament


are those which existed in Muhammad's time and long before. This evidence is afforded by quotations from the Bible found in the writings of different Christian authors in early days. Their books are some in Greek, some in Latin, some in Syriac, others in Coptic, others in Armenian. A large number of verses from the Bible are found in their works, just as many verses of the Qur'an are found in the writings of Muslim authors who have written in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish, and other languages. If every copy of the Qur'an were lost, most or all of it could be recovered by collecting these quotations. In the same way, if every copy of the Greek New Testament had perished long before Muhammad's time, it might all be collected from the numerous quotations from it found in the Christian writers of the first few centuries. A few verses are quoted also by heathens, such as Celsus, Porphyry, and Julian the Apostate. Besides actual quotations, all the Christian writers show an accurate knowledge of the events in Christ's life, His Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension, that are detailed in our four Gospels. This is quite a different line of evidence from what we have previously mentioned, and it supports what has been proved by the testimony of those witnesses whom we previously called upon to testify.

Again, in the catacombs beneath the city of Rome, tombs of many Christians of the second, third, and fourth centuries have been found. The inscriptions and the pictures on these tombs show that in those days Christians believed the doctrines taught in our present Bible.

It has now become clear and beyond dispute that long before Muhammad's time the Jews and the Christians had definite canons or lists of books which they held to be Divinely inspired, and that these books were the very same that are found to-day in the Old Testament and the New Testament which are now in circulation, and which have been translated into