to understand, for it had been made about the fourth century, from the Septuagint.

When 'Umar conquered Egypt, he found the people mostly Christians. They had translated the Old Testament from the Septuagint into three at least of the dialects of their own tongue, the Coptic. These are known as the Buhairic (بُحَيْرِي), the Sa'idic (صَعِيدي), and the Bushmuric (بُشْمُورِي) versions. They were probably made in the third or fourth century, though some think earlier.

Parts of the Old Testament were translated from Syriac into Armenian about 411 A.D. Another version made from the Septuagint into Armenian was published in 436 A.D. About a century later, but still long before the Hijrah, the Georgian version was made from the Armenian.

If we now turn to Europe, we find that a Gothic bishop named Ulphilas, who died in 381 or 383 A.D., translated the Bible into Gothic for his own people about 360 A.D.

Most of these versions were made by Christians, except of course the Septuagint and Aquila's version. But the Jews also translated much of the Old Testament from Hebrew into Aramaic when the majority of them had ceased to speak Hebrew. Onkelos's version of the Torah was made between 150 and 200 A.D. Jonathan ben 'Uzzi'el translated the books of the Prophets about 322 A.D. Besides these there is the Jerusalem Targum, also made before the Hijrah, probably in the sixth century.

It is well known that in early times the Samaritans were great enemies of the Jews. The Samaritans refused to accept as inspired any part of the Old Testament except the Torah of Moses. That, however, they did accept and honour. We do not know for certain when they got a copy of the Hebrew Torah. Some suppose it was about 606 B.C. when the seventy years' captivity of the Jews began.1 Others think

1 It ended 536 B.C.

that it was brought to Samaria by Manasseh, grandson of Eliashib the High Priest. He had married Sanballat's daughter (Neh. xiii. 28), and, being banished from Jerusalem by Nehemiah, founded another1 Temple on Mt. Gerizim about 409 B.C. We still possess copies of the Samaritan Pentateuch, as it is called, written in the original Hebrew language, but in different letters from those in use among the Jews.

When we examine all these different witnesses, and inquire of them whether the Old Testament at present in use among both Jews and Christians was in existence among them in Muhammad's time, they all with one voice answer, "Yes." It is true that different readings occur, as they do in the Qur'an and in all ancient books. It is also true, as we have seen, that the Septuagint translators permitted a few books of no authority to be circulated, in addition to those of the Hebrew Canon. But they did not reject one single book of that Canon. Taking all the versions of the Old Testament that we have mentioned together, there is not one doctrine which is in the slightest degree affected by the trifling variations in readings that exist between them. Hence on this evidence, were there no other, it is clearly proved that our present Old Testament is that which existed in Muhammad's time, and to which the Qur'an so repeatedly bears witness.

Turning now to the New Testament, we must inquire whether the volume now current under that name is the same as that which existed in Muhammad's time. About this among all men of learning there is absolutely not the slightest doubt.

Recent investigation has proved that even in Christ's lifetime some of His disciples had written down short notes of His words and works. Many of these may still be recognized as among the verses which compose St. Mark's Gospel in particular, though these notes are also in a measure incorporated into the Gospels according to St. Matthew and St. Luke. Of course the

1 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Bk. xi, ch. viii