the High and Lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place, with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones (Isa. lvii. 15). Our Lord Jesus Christ's teaching was, as we have seen, that the acceptableness of worship depends not on the place, but on the spirit of the worshipper (John iv. 21-24). We have also seen that, after Christ had offered at Jerusalem the one perfect sacrifice of Himself, there was no longer any room for such sacrifices as had previously been offered. Hence there was no longer anyone special spot on earth appointed to offer them at. The New Covenant has admitted believers in Christ, of whatever nation they may be, to participation in all its blessings and privileges. It is necessary for each true Christian to offer himself to God, not in one special place, but in one special Person, that is to say, in Christ, to be a living sacrifice unto God. Thus the old command regarding sacrifice has been fulfilled with a new and higher meaning. And this took place at the moment when obedience to it, in its literal sense, was no longer requisite, beneficial, or indeed possible.

In the Torah three special festivals were appointed to be observed by the Jews, and it was commanded that their males should in this way, thrice every year, present themselves before the LORD in the pace which He should choose to set His Name there (Exod. xxiii. 14, 17; Deut. xvi. 16). But when the Jews in process of time came to fancy that the more outward observance of these festivals, and the performance of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, quite apart from inward reverence and holiness, was acceptable to God Most High, and that such things were means of storing up merit, then His Prophets were commissioned to declare them to be thus rendered things abominable in His sight (Isa. i. 14-17; Amos v. 21). Spiritual approach to God was the one thing really needful. That is attained in the New Covenant through a living faith


in Christ's Atonement (Col. i. 20-22 sqq. ; Heb. x. 19-22).

Circumcision was appointed in the Torah as a sign of the covenant between God on the one side and Abraham and his descendants on the other. But it implied that those who received this seal of circumcision bound themselves thereby to believe the promise that One descended from Abraham through his son Isaac should be the cause of the shedding of God's blessing on all nations (Gen. xvii. 10-14; xviii. 18; xxii. 18; xxvi. 4). Through Moses the same command was again given to Israel (Lev. xii. 3), though its object could not have been to distinguish the Israelites from the heathen, for many of the latter were also circumcised. It was doubtless intended to teach God's people the need of cutting off from their hearts all sensual desires. Hence in the Torah itself the command is given, "Circumcise the foreskin of your heart" (Deut. x. 16). This is explained in Deut. xxx. 6, where the Israelites are told that love to God will alone drive out sensual desires and purify their hearts. The teaching of the New Testament agrees with this (Rom. ii. 25, 28, 29). When God's New Covenant was made through Christ with believers of all nations, a new sign of the covenant was appointed, Baptism (Matt. xxviii. 19). This is suitable for all, men and women, old and young; and it taught the same lesson of purity. A change of sign was needful because of the New Covenant. It was necessary also to distinguish Christians both from Jews and from those heathens who practised circumcision. But the need of purity of heart and life was insisted on more strongly than ever (Col. iii. 5-17).

There are many other rites and ceremonies of the Jewish Law which in the same manner were intended to teach spiritual lessons. When these lessons had been learnt, there was no longer need for the outward observance of these rites. The outward observances might in fact be injurious, because those Jews