Muhammad's words, and saying, "O man, if thou art in doubt regarding what We have sent down to thee of guidance by Muhammad's tongue, then ask the People of the Book, that they may prove to thee the truth of his position as a Prophet." This brings Ar Razi to the question, How could God refer people to the Scriptures of the Jews and the Christians if these books were really corrupted (مُحَرّقَةْ) or altered (مُغَيْرَةْ)? His reply is not a very satisfactory one, for all he can say is that, if any passages still remained to bear testimony to Muhammad, their evidence would be all the clearer. Ar Razi's1 personal opinion is that the verse was a command addressed to Muhammad himself, providing for the possibility of doubt as to his prophetic office arising in his own mind. But in any case the verse proves that the Jews and Christians were then in the habit of reading their Scriptures, and had been doing so before Muhammad's time. This was evidently Baizawi's opinion, for he thus paraphrases the latter part of the verse: "For 2 verily it is firmly believed among them, established in their books, according as We have imparted it to thee." And he adds: "The significance is the confirmation thereof" (i.e. of the revelation made to Muhammad) and an appeal for evidence to what is in the Holy Scriptures, and that the Qur'an confirms what is in them. The two Jalals (الجلالان) paraphrase the verse thus: 3 "And if thou art in doubt, O Muhammad, as to what We have sent down to thee,—of stories, for instance,—then ask those who are reading the Torah previous to thee, for verily it is established among them: they will inform thee of its truth."

In Surah vii. (Al A'raf), ver. 168, it is said regarding the Jews: "They have inherited the Book ....Was there not taken upon them the covenant of the

1 Ar Razi, vol. v, pp. 28, 29.
2 Baizawi, edition printed at Leipzig in A.D. 1846, p. 424.
3 Jalalan, Part i, p. 205.

Book, that they should not say concerning God anything but the truth? And they have studied what is in it." On this passage Baizawi's1 comment is: "They have inherited the Book, i.e. the Torah, from their predecessors: they read it, and they are aware of what is in it."

In Surah iii. (Al 'Imran), ver. 22, it is thus written: "Hast thou not looked at those who were brought a portion of the Book? They are invited to the Book of God, that it may judge between them. Then a section of them turn back, and they prevent." Baizawi explains "a portion of the Book" as "The Torah,2 or the Heavenly Books in general", and says "The inviter was Muhammad, and the Book of God the Qur'an or the Torah. For it is related that he entered their school: then said to him Na'im ibn 'Amr and Al Harith ibn Zaid, 'To what religion dost thou belong?' Then he said, 'To the Religion of Abraham.' Accordingly they both said to him, 'Verily Abraham was a Jew.' Then said he, 'Come ye to the Torah: verily it is between us and you.' Then they both declined. Accordingly the verse was sent down." Here again we perceive that the Jews in Muhammad's time possessed the Torah, and that Muhammad appealed to it with confidence to decide whatever matter was that day in dispute between himself and them, regarding which subject of dispute there is a difference of opinion among commentators.

In Surah iii. (Al 'Imran), ver. 87, it is said: "All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Israel forbade unto himself, before that the Torah was sent down. Say thou: 'Then bring ye the Torah: then read it aloud, if ye are truthful.'" Baizawi's 3 comment on the final clause is: "A command for them to defend their cause with their Book, and a reproach to them from what was in it, through the fact that what had not been [originally] forbidden had been forbidden to them because of their wrong-doing. It is related

1 Vol i, p. 350.
2 Vol. i, pp. 151, 152.
3 Vol. i, p. 166.