The columns marked with (1) show the words as they appear in the present Qur'an.
Columns marked with (2) show how they should be and how they are indeed corrected in the Arabic literature.
Details regarding some of the above scribal errors are discussed at the following locations:
Clearly, these are recognized and admitted as Scribal Errors by Ibn Khaldun (classical scholar), and as problems by Hamidullah (modern scholar).
Books and articles by P. Newton
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