Treasures In Paper: Books On Islam For Ministry & Information

by Warren G. Chastain


Compiling a bibliography is like eating nuts - it is difficult to know when to stop, and it is very much a matter of "taste." Two general criticisms of this collection are to be expected: the first, "Why is this included?", and two, "Why is that omitted?" Both comments can be justified. But to justify my own procedure I must state that I did not just shake the nut-tree and gather whatever fell! Rather I walked around it carefully and selected nuts that appeared ripe for our consumer - the Christian worker who wants a bibliography that is more comprehensive than those that have been offered in the past, but yet not locked in a thick shell of abstract scholarship. We hope that the shell can be opened easily, and provide nourishment for the minds of hungry Christian witnesses.

In the past, mission agencies have sent out workers with a minimum knowledge and exposure to Islam. And many workers still go out hoping they will learn on the job but still unaware how to dig in and set up a study program for themselves. Islam has been to them like the macadamia nut: attractive, precious, but notoriously difficult to open with that hard, thick shell.

We hope that this bibliography will be a practical tool for the preparation of effective students of, and witnesses to Muslims.

This bibliography is limited to English language works which could be useful to Christian workers among Muslims. The books may be basic, but not necessarily simple; indeed, many of these works are primarily for avid students of Islam. We have sought, as a careful scribe, to bring forth out of our treasure things new and old, works cited regularly by scholars as well as some lesser known books which are selected for some practical benefit.

This article updates the briefer but still useful article of Warren Webster, "A Selected Bibliography for Christian Workers" in The Gospel and Islam (available from MARC-WV), which is amplified by an article giving a methodology of research for almost any Islamic theme in Warren Chastain's "A Bibliography of Articles on Islam," available from EMIS, Box 794, Wheaton, IL 60137 and ZIMS, Box 365, Altadena, CA 91001.

Muslim, Christian, and secular titles are included, as well as some older apologetic materials difficult to find now, but which may become more relevant again as Muslims become more confrontational as they make more contacts with Christian peoples.

Books will be listed below according to the general outline used in The Muslim World "Survey of Periodicals" with some changes.

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Cragg, Kenneth and Marston Speight.
1980   Islam from Within. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 
       (Judicious comments by the authors plus use of key spokesman 
       for Islam give an "insider's view")

Delval, Raymond. editor
1984   The Muslims in the World. E.J. Brill, Plantijnstraat 2, 
       2321 JC, Leiden, Netherlands. (The best large wall map in 
       existence. Shows concentrations of Sunni and Shi'a in all 
       countries. Includes an explanatory book with statistics).

Ede, David. et al
1983   Guide to Islam. G.K. Hall, 70 Lincoln St. Boston. 
       (A useful 261 page research tool with 2962 titles of books 
       and articles carefully indexed. Annotated).

al Faruki, Isma'il R. and Lois L. al Faruki.
1986   The Cultural Atlas of Islam. NY: Macmillan.
       (A major work by Muslim scholars covering a broad sweep of 
       Islamic history, culture, and religion. Slights Shi'a and 
       Sufis. Exaggerates Muslim impact and serves as a corrective 
       to the orientalist approach. Not for beginners).

Gaudefroy-Demonbynes, M.
1954   Muslim Institutions. London. (Covers all aspects of 
       Arab life and in a small compass delivers a massive amount 
       of information on law, dogma, practices, etc)

Geddes, Charles L.
1973   An Analytical Guide to the Bibliographies on Islam, 
       Muhammad, and the Qur'an. American Institute of Islamic 
       Studies, Box 10191, Denver, CO 80210. (Detailed annotation 
       of 213 bibliographies in western languages, Arabic, Persian, 
       and Russian, 1658-1972)

1975   Books in English on Islam, Muhammad, and the Qur'an: 
       A Selected, Annotated Biblioqraphy. Denver: AIIS 
       (A list of over 100 selected titles)

Geijbels, M.
1975   An Introduction to Islam. Christian Study Centre, 
       126B Murree Rd. Rawalpindi, Pakistan. (A valuable set of 
       teaching materials in four parts by a Catholic scholar 
       speaking from experience in a Muslim context)

Gibb, Sir H.A.R.
1953   Mohammadanism: An Historical Survey. 2nd ed. NY:OUP 
       (A Classic study by one the foremost scholars in the West. 
       Profound and brief)

1982   Studies on the Civilization of Islam. Princeton, NJ

Gibb, H.A.R. and J. H. Kramers, et al
1953   Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E.J. Brill. 
       (Superb scholarship covering key Islamic themes)

1960   The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition. 
       Leiden: E.J. Brill. 4 volumes completed. (The best in 
       contemporary scholarship. To be distinguished from E. J. Brill's 
       First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913- 1936, a 1987 
       reprint in 9 vols. 5164p. with 9000 articles)

Gilchrist, John.
1986   Muhammad and the Religion of Islam. Jesus to the Muslims, 
       Box 1804, Benoni, South Africa. (A 408p presentation of Islam 
       from an evangelical who is heavily engaged in direct ministry. 
       A second volume on how to handle controversial apologetic issues 
       is in process - The Christian Witness to the Muslim. 
       Very useful for apologetic ministry)

Graham, William A. and Marilyn R. Waldman.
1983   Islam-Fiche, Readings from Islamic Primary Sources. 
       From IDC, Poststrasse 14, 6300 Zug, Switzerland. 
       (This is a new kind of anthology for studying and teaching 
       Islamic civilization. These series of selected microfiche 
       collections would make an excellent means for Christian 
       schools to make available to its students critical primary 
       and secondary source materials, and thus build a stronger 
       Islamic study program)

Grimwood-Jones, Diana and Derek Hopwood (eds.)
1979   The Middle East and Islam: A Bibliographical Introduction. 
       Zug, Switz.: Inter Documentation. (A collection of bibliographies, 
       many heavily annotated)

Hodgson, Marshal G.S.
1974   The Venture of Islam. 3 vols. Univ. of Chicago Press 
       (Profound and massive. Brilliant interpretative study 
       that places Islam in the context of world civilization. For 
       advanced students)

Holt, P.M. et al., (Eds.)
1970   The Cambridge History of Islam. CUP. 2 vols: 815 and 
       966 pp. CUP. (Authoritative, but non-interpretative and tedious 
       in parts. Good on religion, culture, etc)

Hughes, T.P.
1895   The Dictionary of Islam. Islamic Book Publishers, 
       Box 20210, Safat, Kuwait, or from FFM, 205 Yonge St. Toronto. 
       (A Christian work that is appreciated by Muslims. Old but gold. 
       A standby for missionaries)

Jeffery, Arthur.
1962   A Reader on Islam. 'S-Gravenhage: Mouton & Co. 
       (Gives passages from standard Arabic writings showing the 
       beliefs and practices of Muslims. An extensive anthology)

Lammens, H.
1929   Islam, Beliefs and Institutions. London: Frank Cass. 
       256 pp. (A Catholic scholar provides a superior sweep of Islam 
       as a religion. May be unpalatable to Muslim modern scholars)

Littlefield, David N.
1975    The Islamic Near East and North Africa: Annotated Guide 
        to Books in English for the Non-Specialist.
        Littleton, CO

Maududi, Abul A'la.
1973    Towards Understandinq Islam. 
        From ATP, 10900 W. Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46231 
        (A foremost conservative Muslim scholar whose works have 
        influenced thinkers across the whole Muslim world)

1978    Fundamentals of Islam. 3rd edition, 263p. 
        From Islamic Publications, 13-E Shahalam Market, Lahore.

Mitchell, Richard P. and David Schoenback.
1980    An Annotated Bibliography on the Modern History Of the Near 
        East. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Center for Near Eastern and North 
        African Studies. (An essay for students and non-specialist 

Nasr, Seyyed Hossain.
1966    Ideals and Realities of Islam. London: George Allen 
        & Unwin. (An influential Muslim thinker deeply conversant 
        with modern western thought provides an interpretation of 

Rahman, Fazlur.
1979    Islam. 2nd ed., Univ. of Chicago Press, 283p. 
        (An in-depth modernistic interpretation of Islam by one of 
        the foremost Muslim scholars in the world. Beginners will 
        miss many of the issues Rahman debates)

Robinson, Francis.
1982    Atlas of the Islamic World since 1500. NY: Facts on File 
        (May be compared with another excellent historical atlas by 
        William Brice (ed.) An Historical Atlas of Islam. 
        Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1981)

Ruthven, Malise.
1984    Islam in the World. NY: OUP, 400p. (A fascinating 
        introduction to Islam. Original and interpretative)

Said, Edward W.
1978    Orientalism. NY: Pantheon. (An Arab Christian literary 
        scholar criticizes the attitudes and methods of western 
        journalism and scholarship dealing with the Arab world)

Saliba, Maurice.
1981    Index Libanicus. Jounieh, Lebanon: Paulist Press, 510pp. 
        (An immense bibliography of books and articles from 650 peridicals 
        with 5,359 titlen covering the Levant from 1515 to 1979).

Schoon, Frithjof.
1976    Understandinq Islam. London: D.M. Matheson. (A convert 
        to Sufi Islam providing one of the best works in English on 
        the meaning of Islam for a scholar)

Sell, Edward.
1920    The Faith of Islam. 4th ed., London. (A wellorganized, 
        useful presentation of Islam).

Simon, Reeva.
1978    The Modern Middle East: A Guide to Research Tools in the 
        Social Sciences. Boulder: Westview. (This can be used as 
        a "modern Sauvaget")

Watt, W. Montgomery.
1968    What is Islam?. London : Longmans. (A summary of how 
         a noted Christian scholar evaluates Islam).


Andrae, Tor.
1960    Mohammad, The Man and His Faith. NY: Harper & Row. 194 p. 
        (Highly recommended sympathetic biography placing Muhammad in 
        a religious and psychological continuity with the Arab worldview 
        of the time. Stresses influence of Monophysites).

Anees, Munawar A. and Alea N. Athar.
1986    Guide to Sira and Hadith Literature in Western Languages. 
        London: Mansell. 404 p. (2,996 entries covering early 16th century 
        to 1985. Annotated).

Asad, Muhammad.
1980    The Message of the Qur'an. Gibraltar: Dar-al-Andalus. 
        (A modern translation by a Muslim convert and noted scholar).

____    Sahih Al-Bukhari: The Early Years of Islam. From New Era 
        Publications, Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 306 p. (The historical 
        chapters of the Kitab al-Jami as-Sahih up to the Battle of 
        Badr. Includes Arabic text alongside English translation.)

Bell, Richard.
1968    The Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment. London: 
        Frank Cass (Reprint of 1926 edition), 224p. (Links Muhammad's 
        ideas to Christianity, not a fashionable view in contemporary 
        Islamic studies).

Cragg, Kenneth.
1971    The Event of the Qur'an: Islam in its Scripture. London: 
        Allen & Unwin. (Cragg gets into the mind of the Qur'an and 
        studies it in its pagan context).

1973    The Mind of the Qur'an. London: Allen & Unwin. 209 pp. 
        (Companion to above volume. Studies three classic commentators).

Gabrieli, Francesco.
1968    Muhammad and the Conquests of Islam. NY: McGraw. 
        (An Italian scholar writes best survey of conquests in English. 
        Objective, solid scholarship. Very readable and well illustrated)

Guillaume, A. (translator)
1955    The Life of Muhammad. (An early full-length biography by 
        Ibn Ishaq in the 8th century, and radically edited later by 
        Ibn Hisham. Gives a more authentic flavor than contemporary 

Haykal, Muhammad Husayn.
1976    The Life of Muhammad. Indianapolis: ATP. 841p. 8th ed. 
        (A modernistic biography by a noted Egyptian author. Theological 
        in tone and one of the most influential biographies ever written).

Margoliouth, D.S.
1927    Mohammad and the Rise of Islam. NY: Putnam. 481p.
        (Noted scholar sees Muhammad as a "captain of banditti" and 
        as a stealer of camels, etc.)

Muir, Sir William.
1894    The Life of Mahomet from Original Sources. London. 3rd ed., 
        536 pp. ("Longest, most faithful resume of the sources on the 
        life of Muhammad in English" - Ede)

Rodinson, Maxime.
1971    Mohammed. Revised edition trans. by Anne Carter. 
        NY: Viking Penguin. xx, 361p. (French scholar of Semitic 
        languages with long experience in the Middle East who sees 
        Muhammad as having experienced real sensory phenomena, but 
        interprets it rationalistically. Well written)

Watt, W. Montgomery.
1961    Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman. London: OUP. 250p. 
        (A sympathetic modern biography that stresses economic forces 
        and Muhammad's skills in forging tribal relationships. Abridges 
        his Muhammad at Mecca and Muhammad at Medina. 
        Leans over backwards to apologize for moral failures in Muhammad).


Ali, A. Yusuf.
1946    The Holy Qur'an. Indianapolis, IN: ATP. 1915p. 
        (An English/Arabic version with English commentary on every verse. 
        One of the most used versions by a noted Muslim scholar, which 
        could become even more of a standard since it has been used as 
        the basis for computer database covering the entire text - see 
        QURANBASE below)

1974    The Message of the Qur'an. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle

Ali, S.V. Mir Ahmed.
1964    The Holy Qur'an. Karachi: Muhammad Khaleel Shirazi. 
        (Useful for comparison as a Shi'a version as against the Yusuf 
        Ali version which presents a Sunni view).

Arberry, A.J.
1955    The Koran Interpreted. London: OUP. 
        (Considered to be the finest rendition of the flavor of the 
        original in English. Its position as a standard was enhanced 
        by the recent publication of a complete concordance to the Koran 
        using Arberry as the basic text)

Baljon, J.M.S.
1961    Modern Muslim Koran Interpretation (1800-1960). 
        Leiden: Brill. 135 pp. (Examines modern exegesis, methods of 
        interpretation, and major issues. The Introduction treats 
        important exegetes, their lives and work).

Basetti-Sani, Gialio. O.F.M.
1977    The Koran in the Light of Christ. 223p. Franciscan Herald 
        Press, 1434 W. 34 St, Chicago, IL 60609. (The biographer of 
        Massignon rejects the skepticism of Maracci, Caetani, and Lammens 
        and calls for a new view of the role of Islam in the history of 

Bell, Richard.
1953    Introduction to the Qur'an. Edinburgh. x, 190p. 
        (An essential tool for study of technical issues related to the 
        development of the Qur'an. He has developed a major theory to 
        account for the disorder of the Qur'an. Revised by Watt - see below)

Burton, John.
1977    The Collection of the Qur'an. London: CUP. 273p.

Cragg, Kenneth.
1970    The Event of the Qur'an. London: Allen & Unwin. 208p. 
        (A more readable and less technical introduction than Bell's)

1973    The Mind of the Qur'an. London: Allen & Unwin. 209p. 
        (Deals with the significance of the Qur'an for both the Muslim 
        and non-Muslim. The recitation and interpretive sciences explained 
        as well as a look at how the Qur'an is relevant in a secular, 
        pluralistic world)

Gatje, Helmut. Translated and edited by Alford T. Welch.
1976    The Qur'an and Its Exepesis: Selected Texts with Classical 
        and Modern Muslim Interpretations. Berkeley: Univ. of 
        California Press. 313 pp. (This unique work is very useful for 
        comparing Muslim and Christian concepts such as revelation, 
        Muhammad, God, angels, eschatology, angels, and other topics 
        like dogmatics, exegesis of Shiites, mystics, and moderns. 
        Uses key texts from selected commentators)

Goldsack, William.
1923    Selections from Muhammadan Traditions. Madras: Christian 
        Literature Society. (Uses hadith drawn from the 6 sahih books 
        plus a few minor authorities. Traditions are grouped by topics 
        to make them easier to study, and removal of the isnad 
        saves time).

Graham, William A.
1976    Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam: A Reconsideration 
        of Sources, with Special Reference to the Divine Sayinq or Hadith 
        Qudsi. The Haque Mouton, 266 pp. (Rejects common idea that 
        there was a clear distinction from early Islam between the 
        prophet's teaching and revelation. New light on the Muslim concept 
        of revelation).

Guillaume, A.
1924    The Traditions of Islam. Oxford. 182p. 
        ("An Introduction to the Study of the Hadith Literature" that builds 
        on Goldziher's epochal studies. Gives Muslim criticisms of traditions 
        and a chapter on Jewish and Christian borrowings).

Islamic Computing Centre.
1986    Computerised Hadith. From ICC, 73, St Thomas Ro. London N4 2QJ, UK. 
        (Some 10,000 sayings taken from the six major hadith collections are 
        conveniently codified for easy retrieval and available on IBM/PC/XT 
        or their compatibles with a minimum memory of 512K of RAM and 
        10 megabytes of disc storage).

Jeffery, Arthur.
1928    The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur'an. Baroda: Oriental 
        Institute. 311 pp. (A dictionary and indexes of loan words. 
        Contains a critical bibliography of works that analyze the 
        teaching and content of the Qur'an).

1937    Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur'an. Leiden: 
        Brill. 609 pp. ("A listing of the known differences distinguishing 
        some 28 codices of the Qur'an." Introduction discusses variant 
        readings problem. Technical).

1952    The Qur'an as Scripture. NY: Russell Moore. 103 pp. 
        ("The nature of the sacred book, prophecy, inspiration, the 
        relation of the Qur'an to earlier scriptures, and the textual 
        history of the Qur'an are subjects of this important study.")

Juynboll, G.H.A.
1969    The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature: Discussions in 
        Modern Eqypt. Leiden: Brill. 171 pp. (Modern Muslim scholars 
        in debate among themselves are studied to bring out major issues 
        concerning the hadith in a unique work).

Kassis, Hanna E.
1983    A Concordance of the Qur'an. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. 
        xxxv, 1444p (The most complete concordance of the Qur'an in English, 
        based on Arberry. It has a major section on Allah including all 
        terms related to the divine name).

Khalifa, Rashad.
1973    Miracle of the Qur'an: Siqnificance of the Mysterious Alphabets.
        St. Louis: Islamic Productions International. 200 pp. (A computer 
        used to "prove" the divine origin of the Qur'an by giving number 
        values to letters and words. Reminiscent of Ivan Panin's Biblical 

Khan, M.M. translator
1979   The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih al-Bukhari. 4th ed., 
       9 vols. Kazi Publications. (The classic authority made available in 
       English taking students beyond the compendium of al-Bukhari by 
       Muhammad Ali, A Manual of Hadith)

O'Shaughnessy, Thomas. S.J.
1948    The Koranic Concept of the Word of God Rome: Pontificio 
        Instituto Biblico. (Jesus as the Word of God in the Koran)

n.d.     Arabic Software & Computers, Inc. has produced a database containing 
         the entire Quranic text from Yusuf Ali's translation. "The database 
         includes a series of data query commands for quickly searching 
         through the text. (One) can quickly find a ... group of verses by 
         entering a simple command. QURANBASE locates verses by subject and 
         by keyword as well." $295 from ASCI, 725 Deep Valley Dr., Palos 
         Verdes, CA 90274

Rahman, Fazlur.
1980    Major Themes of the Qur'an. Chicago: Bibliotheca Islamica. 180 pp. 
        ("A brilliant, original examination of the contents of the Qur'an 
        that diverges significantly from previous studies, both Muslim and 
        Western." Rahman studies basic ideas of God, man, evil, Satan, 
        prophethood, revelation, eschatology).

Robson, James. (Translator)
1975    Mishkat-ul-masabih. 2 vols. Lahore: Sh. Muh. Ashraf 
        ("This translation of al-Baghawi's collection of hadith brings to 
        the English reader all of the authentic traditions found in the 
        classical Sunni manuals, except the isnads." Excellent introduction 
        and translation. 1453 pp.).

Sale, George and E.M. Wherry.
1975    A Comprehensive Commentary on the Koran. NY: AMS Press. 
        (A reprint of an 1896 four volume work)

Siddiqui, A.H. (Trans.)
1976    Mishkat-al-masabih. vol.1. MSA Islamic Book Service, 
        10900 W. Washington St. Indinapolis, IN 46231. (An Arabic text with 
        English translation and commentary)

1976    Sahih Muslim. vol. I-IV. Indianapolis: MSA Islamic Book Service. 
        (This 1600 page set is a classic on the words and deeds of Muhammad 
        as narrated by his companions. Available in hardback at $12 a volume)

Stanton, H.U.W.
1969    The Teaching of the Qur'an. Ny : Biblo & Tannen. 
        (Provides a topical index to passages on essential themes, but 
        does not have written out the verses cited. A useful study tool. 
        Another useful tool which can be used in conjunction with this 
        is Don Rickard's A Religious Topical Index of the Qur'an which 
        when published should greatly benefit students)

al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir.
1987    Commentary on the Qur'an or Tafsir. Vol 1 (of 5), NY: Oxford. 
        546 pp. Abridged and translated by John Cooper, W.F. Madelung, and 
        Alan Jones, et al. ("This edition of the most famous commentary on 
        the Qur'an, abridged from 30 to 5 volumes and including the full 
        text of the Qur'an in Arabic and English, is the first translation 
        of a work considered second only to the Qur'an itself in importance 
        as a sacred Islamic text.")

Tisdall, W. St. Clair.
1901    The Sources of Islam. 1973 reprint from Amarko Book Agency, 
        B-42 Amar Colony, New Delhi 110024, India.

Toshihiko Izatsu.
1959    The Structure of the Ethical Terms in the Koran. Tokyo: 
        Keio Institute of Philological Studies. (A highly recommended 
        application of the techniques of linguistic analysis to the Qur'an 
        to arrive at its fundamental concepts).

1964    God and Man in the Koran. Tokyo: Institute of Cultural and 
        Linguistic Studies. (A semantic study of the Quranic worldview)

Watt, W. Montgomery.
1968    Companion to the Qur'an. Gives background information on each 
        chapter; brief but enlightening. Arberry is basic text, but keyed 
        to other translations)

1970    Bell's Introduction to the Qur'an. Edinburgh Univ. Press. 
        (Watt is more sympathetic to Islam than Bell, and more readable. 
        He includes a table for converting the Fluegel to Egyptian verse 
        numbers. Two new chapters have been added on the Qur'an and both 
        Muslim and western scholarship)

Wensinck, A.J.
1927    A Handbook of Early Muhammedan Tradition. Leiden: Brill. 268 pp. 
        ("An English concordance of the traditions in the collections of 
        al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasati, Ibn Maja, 
        al-Darimi, and Malik b. Anas." - Ede)


Arnold, Edwin.
1954    Pearls of the Faith, or Islam's Rosary. Lahore: Orientalia. 
        190 pp. (A reprint of the 1882 work which is useful to study popular  
        beliefs on the 99 Names of God, and to understand the devotional 
        life of Muslims. Each name has a prayer, tradition or legend 
        illustrating its meaning).

Calverley, E.E.
1957    WorshiP in Islam. London: Luzac. Rev. ed. (Great detail on 
        Muslim daily prayers. Translates much from al-Ghazali)

Cragg, Kenneth.
1985    The Call af the Minaret Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. 2nd edition, 
        revised and enlarged, 358 pp. (Outstanding classic. "An account of 
        the spiritual tradition of Islam so sensitive as to inspire Muslims 

Donaldson, D.W.
1963    Studies in Muslim Ethics. London: SPCK ("The only comprehensive 
        treatment of the subject in English. Deals with ethical theories of 
        philosophers, mystics, the Qur'an, hadith, and modern trends).

Fakhry, Majid.
1970    A History of Islamc Philosophy. NY: Columbia, 427 pp. 
        (Misleading title since it deals heavily with theology and 
        mysticism, also politics and social affairs. Covers early 
        theological controversies and modern trends).

von Grunebaum, G.E.
1976    Muhammedan Festivals. London: Curzon Press. 107 p. 
        (Deals with the meanings of major holy days, the hajj, ramadan, 
        Muharram 10, with a section on prayer, saint veneration , and 
        worship of Muhammad).

Guellooz, E. and A. Frikha.
1978    Pilgrimage to Mecca. London: East-West. 
        (A major work with photographs).

Hussaini, Muhammad. 
        Islamic Dietary Laws and Practices. From New Era. Box 8139, 
        Ann Arbor, MI 48107, 165 p.

Jamali, Mhd, Fadhel.
1965    Letters on Islam. Written by a Father in Prison to his Son. 
        London: OUP

Kelly, Marjorie. (ed.)
1984    Islam: The Religious and Political Life of a World Community. 
        NY: Foreign Policy Assn. 336 p.

Levy, Reuben.
1957    The Social Structure of Islam. London: CUP. 536 p. 
        (Standard for sociological development of institutions and changes 
        in societies penetrated by Islam).

MacDonald, D.B.
1912    The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam. Chicago. 
        ("MacDonald set himself to lay bare the real context of the religious 
        perceptions of the greater mass of Muslims, and he succeeds in showing 
        the inner nature of their religion as no treatise on theology ... can 
        do. This book is one of the fundamental works in the entire field of 
        Islamic studies").

Muhajir, Ali Musa Raza.
1968    Islam in Practical Life. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 221 pp. 
        (What is the quranic justification for Muslim practices? Verses 
        quoted with an apologetic).

Padwick, Constance
1961    Muslim Devotions. London. (Noted collection of actual prayers 
        and devotional materials Muslims use).

Quasem, Muhammad Abul.
1983    Salvation of the Soul and Islamic Devotions. London: Kegan, 
        Paul International. 289 pp. (What are Muslim ideas about salvation 
        and how one seeks it).

Roberts, Robert.
1925    The Social Laws of the Qoran. London. (A short work but useful 
        for its summary of what the Koran teaches about marriage, divorce, 
        slavery, inheritance, criminal law, food laws, and commerce).

Wagtendonk, K.
1968    Fasting in the Koran. Leiden: Brill. 154 pp. (A basic study on 
        the subject with an exegetical analysis of Koranic texts, and the 
        historical background of the origin of Ramadan).

Wensinck. A.J.
1925    Arabic New Year and the Feast of Tabernacles. Amsterdam. 41 pp. 
        (Technical study of Ramadan as a modification of the pre-Islamic New 
        Year's rites. He traces parallels between Ramadan and Feast of 

Zwemer, S.M.
1920    The Influence of Animism on Islam. NY: Macmillan. 246p. 
        (Zwemer did extensive authoritative research on folk Islam. His 
        chapter on "The Aqiqa Sacrifice" can be very useful).

1939    Studies in Popular Islam. NY: Macmillan. (Completes his 
        studies in common beliefs and practices. Zwemer often brings out 
        materials useful for witnessing).


Ahmad, Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud.
1980    Invitation to Ahmadiyyat. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

al-Amin, Hassan.
1970    Islamic Shi'ite Encyclopaedia. Beirut: Slim Press. 3 vols. 
        (An excellent source of information about Shi'ite themes. 
        Arrangement difficult to use).

Arberry, A.J.
1957    Revelation and Reason in Islam. London: Allen & Unwin. 122 pp. 
        (A general study of how theologians, mystics, and philosohers tried 
        to resolve the conflict within Islam between reason and revelation).

Burney, M.E.
1955    Qadiani Movement. Durban, RSA: Makki Publications.

deBoer, T.J.
1967    The History of Philosophy in Islam. NY: Dover Publications. 
        Originally published in 1903. (Charles J. Adams of McGill University 
        held that deBoer is inadequate but we lack anything better).

Donaldson, Dwight M.
1933    The Shi'ite Religion. London: Luzac. 
        (An exmissionary to Persia presents the best general introduction; 
        stress on Persia and Iraq).

Goldziher, Ignaz.
1981    Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law. Princeton Univ. Press. 302p. 
        (This reprint of an older work is valuable because of Goldziher's 
        massive erudition)

von Grunebaum, G.E. editor.
1971    Theology and Law in Islam. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz. 
        (Contains article by J. Schacht, M.W. Watt, Fazlur Rahman, et al)

Izatsu, Toshihiko.
1964    God and Man in the Koran: Semantics of the Koranic Weltanschaung. 
        (A difficult study of the God-man relationship in the Koran using 
        semantic analysis).

1965    The Concept of Belief in Islamic Theoloqy. Tokio: Keio Institute. 258 pp. 
        (A heavy analysis of Sunni, concepts that relate to belief and its 
        objects. Difficult reading).

1966    Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur'an. Rev. ed. Montreal: 
        McGill. 284 pp. (Orig. pub. as The Structure of Religious Terms in 
        the Koran. 1959. The transformation of key ethical ideas such as 
        faith, unbelief, good, bad, hypocrisy, etc. in the Qur'an).

Lavan, Spencer.
1974    The Ahmadiyah Movement. Delhi, India: Manohar Book Service.

Lewis, Bernard.
1940    The Origins of Isma'ilism. Cambridge: W. Heffer.
        (A condensed scholarly doctoral thesis that illuminates the intricate 
        links of this secretive sect).

MacDonald, D.B.
1903    Develoment of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence, and Constitutional 
        Theory. NY: Scribners. 386 pp. (Basic concepts, problems, and 
        history of Muslim law. Dated but useful, especially for the three 
        short creeds of al-Ash'ari, al-Ghazali, and al-Nasafi).

Makarim, Sami Nasib.
1974    The Druze Faith. Delmar, NY: Caravan. 153 pp. 
        (A Druze examines history and beliefs from within).

Malik, Charles. (Ed.)
1972    God and Man in Contemporary Islamic Thought. Beirut:
        AUB Centennial Publications.

Nadwi, Abul Hasan Ali.
1974    Qadianism - A Critical Study. From New Era, Box 8139 Ann Arbor, 
        MI 48107. 139 pp. (A Muslim critique of the Qadian Ahmadiyya sect).

O'Shaugnessy, Thomas, S.J.
1953    The Development of the Meaning of Spirit in the Koran. 
        Rome and Chicago: Loyola Univ. Press. 75 pp. (The term "ruh" 
        shows gnostic influences in the Koran. Jewish and Christian 
        influences considered).

1969    Muhammad's Thoughts on Death: A Study of Qur'anic Data. 
        Leiden: Brill. 90 pp.

Pelly, Lewis.
1879    The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain. (2 vole). 
        London: Gregg International Publishers. (The 37 scenes of the Hasan 
        and Husain passion plays in English , with the historical background. 
        Reprinted in 1970).

Rahbar, Daud.
1960    God of Justice: A Study of the Ethical Doctrine of the Qur'an. 
        Leiden: Brill. 446 pp. (Not a comprehensive study of the ethical 
        system of the Qur'an, but a focus on the problem of man's freewill 
        and God's predestination. Seeks to prove that man's actions are 
        not pre-determined by God).

Raisanen, Heibbi.
1972    The Idea of Divine Hardening: A Comparative Study of the Notion 
        of Divine Hardening, Leading Astray and Inciting to Evil in the 
        Bible and the Qur'an. Helsinki: Finnish Exegetical Society. 108 pp. 
        (The problem of predestination studied exegetically. The "negative 
        predestination" is explained by the "bitter experience of the Mecca 
        opposition." Western writings on the subject surveyed).

Sachedina, Abdulaziz A. 
        Islamic Messianism: The Idea of the Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism. 
        Albany, NY: State Univ of Ny Press. (Traces the development of the 
        Mahdi concept, compares it to Judeo-Christian ideas of the Messiah, 
        and links it with the experience of Shi'ite Muslims relating to 
        political regimes).

Smith, Jane Idleman and Yvonne Y. Haddad.
1981    The Islamic Understandinq of Death and Resurrection. 
        Albany, NY: State Univ. of NY Press. 262 pp. 
        (Shows the eschatological views of classical and modern Islam with 
        chapters on "The Special Case of Women and children in the Afterlife," 
        and "The Cult of Saints").

al-Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn.
1975    Shi'ite Islam. Albany, NY: SUNy Press. 253 p. (Very useful 
        "since it is the only English compendium of Shi'i beliefs set forth 
        by a living representive of the main branch <Ithna Ashari> of 
        the Shi'ah.")

Tritton, A.S.
1947    Muslim Theology. London: Royal Asiatic Society. 218 p.
        (A general study on the development of theology).

Torrey, C.C.
1892    The Commercial-Theological Terms in the Koran. 
        Leiden: Brill. 51 pp. ("The author argues that these trade terms 
        shape and characterize the 'theology' of the Qur'an, creating an 
        atmosphere in which the 'commercial spirit' is the central feature 
        of Muhammad's religious outlook.")

Watt, W. Montgomery.
1973    The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. Edinburgh 424 pp. 
        ("The most detailed and comprehensive treatment of the development 
        of early Islamic thought <632-945> that exists in the English
        language." - Ede)

Wensinck, A.J.
1962    The Muslim Creed: Its Genesis and Historical Development. 
        London: Cass. 304 pp. ("A classic study on early theological 
        developments in Sunni Islam" with an analysis of three early creeds).

Wolfson, H.A.
1976    The Philosophy of the Kalam. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press. 
        779 pp. ("A monumental work that systematically examines with great 
        care the origin, structure, and diversity of six central teachings 
        of Islamic theology: divine attributes, Qur'an, creation, atomism, 
        causality, the freewill problem.")


Abun-Nasr, Jamil.
1965    The Tijaniyya, A Sufi Order in the Modern World. NY: OUP 204 p. 
        (The history, doctrines, and role of this order in Northwest Africa).

Arberry, Arthur.
1950    Sufism. London. George Allen & Unwin. (Probably the best 
        English history. Simple, clear, but rich.)

Brewster, D.P.
1976    Al-Hallaj, Muslim Mystic and Martyr. Christchurch, NZ: Univ. 
        of Canterbury. 51 p.

Burckhardt, Titus.
1959    An Introduction to Sufi Doctrine. Lahore: Mohd Ashraf. 155 pp. 
        (A study of select Sufi doctrine stressing intuitive insight and the 
        teaching of Ibn al-'Arabi).

Lings, Martin.
1981    What is Sufism? London: Unwin Paperbacks 139 p.
        ("A brief introduction to Sufism that tries to explain and interpret 
        it from the 'inside'.")

____    A Muslim Saint of the 20th Centurv. From New Era, Box 8139, 
        Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 242 pp. (An English Muslim scholar reveals life 
        of Shaikh Ahmad Alawi).

Nicholson, Reynold. A.
1921    Studies in Islamic Mysticism. Cambridge: CUP
        (Charles J. Adams said, "The two greatest names in the study of 
        Muslim mysticism are probably those of Reynold Nicholson and 
        Louis Massignon.")

1975    The MYstics of Islam. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Reprint 
        of 1921 edition. ("Along with Arberry's Sufism, this is the 
        best introductory treatment of Sufism in English.")

Schimmel, A.
1975    Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North 
        Carolina Press. 506 pp. ("The most comprehensive historical treatment 
        of Islamic mysticism in English ... from origins to the 19th century.")

Smith, Margaret.
1985    Rabi'a the Mystic and Her Fellow Saints in Islam. 2nd ed.
        Cambridge: CUP. 256 pp. (A reissue of the the 1928 classic with a 
        valuable introduction by Prof. A. Schimmel on mysticism, Sufism, 
        and the role of women in the Muslim world).

1931    Studies in Early Mysticism in the Near and Middle East. 
        NY: Macmillian. (She shows the links with Christian practice in 
        arguing for Christian sources to Sufism).

1954    The Sufi Path of Love. London: Luzac. (A highly regarded short 
        anthology from original sources and key interpreters. Explores the 
        nature and doctrines of Sufism with an excellent bibliography).

Subhan, Bishop John.
1938    Sufism, its Saints and Shrines. Lucknow Publishing House. 
        (He "gives a veritable catalogue of the mystic orders of India, 
        where this phenomenon took a deep hold ... and continues to be 

Trimingham. J.S.
1971    The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford. 333 pp. 
        ("The most comprehensive study of the Sufi orders available." 
        It lists all Sufi orders with useful information on the 
        organizational structures).

Watt, W. Montgomery.
1953    The Faith and Practice of al-Ghazali. London: George Allen 
        & Unwin. (Watt links the depths of the philosophical mind with the 
        mystical heart of this epochal figure).



Anderson, J.N.D.
1976    Law Reform in the Muslim World. London. (A brief survey of how 
        Muslims are handling change of some modern major legal issues).

Asad, Muhammad. 
____    Principles of State and Government in Islam. From New Era 
        Publishers, Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107.

Chapman, Colin.
1983    Whose Promised Land? Herts, UK: Lion. 253 pp. (A biblical and 
        critical study of claims that Israel has divine rights to the land 
        of Palestine).

Chacour, Elias.
1984    Blood Brother. Grand Rapids: Chosen Books. 224 pp. 
        (A Palestinian Christian seeks conciliation between Jews and Arabs 
        and struggles to preserve Christians).

Coulson, N.J.
1964    A History of Muslim Law. Edinburgh. 264 pp. (Listed by 
        K. Cragg as a "competent manual". Recommended for the first reading 
        on Islamic law).

1969    Conflicts and Tensions in Islamic Jurisprudence. Univ. of 
        Chicago Press. 118 pp. (Six essays on a different issues. "For the 
        beginner the book can identify the nature of Islamic law.")

Cudsi, Alexander and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki. (Editors)
1981    Islam and Power. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ.

Dawisha, Adeed.
1986    The Arab Radicals. NY: Council on Foreign Relations. 171 pp. 
        (An Iraqi scholar deals with radical states and movements. Useful 
        to correct those influenced by western journalistic ideas).

Ellis, Kail C. O.S.A.
1987    The Vatican, Islam,and the Middle East. Syracuse Univ. Press. 364 pp. 
        (Deals with Shiites, the Palestinian conflict, resurgent Islam  
        and Christian relations; also articles on Sudan, India, Pakistan, 
        Philippines, and Lebanon).

Enayat, Hamid.
1982    Modern Islamic Political Thought. London. (An excellent 
        scholarly survey of Shiite and Sunni political ideologies and 

Esposito, John L. (Ed.)
1980    Islam and Development: Religion and Sociopolitical Change. 
        Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. 268 pp. (Essays by specialists 
        challenging idea that Islam is a hindrance to development).

1983    Voices of Resurgent Islam. NY: OUP. 294 pp. (In three parts: 
        the background of modern Islam; the roles and ideas of six major 
        leaders, and six Muslim interpreters view the resurgence from the 

Esposito, John L. and John J. Donohue.
1982    Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives. NY: OUP. 322 pp. 
        ("Provides direct access to modern Muslim thinkers as they grapple 
        with the problems [facing] Islam in a period of socio-political 

Ibrahim, Ahmad, et al. (Compilers).
1985    Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of 
        Southeast Asian Studies. 407 pp. (49 articles on early and colonial 
        Islam; post-independence politics, the institutionalization of 
        Islam, socio-cultural settings, and perspectives on modernization).

ISSACHAR Research Paper.
1984    The Palestine Issue. From Issachar, Box 30727,
        Seattle, WA 98103. 72 pp. (Written by evangelical Christians to 
        present a balanced picture of the Jewish-Palestine debate).

Jansen, G.A.
1979    Militant Islam. London: Pan Books. (A Muslim criticism of 
        orientalists, journalists, and western foreign policy toward Muslim 
        states by a journalist and translator of the Koran into English).

Khadduri, Majid.
1955    War and Peace in the Law of Islam. Baltimore John Hopkins. 
        (Expounds "the broad view of the ideal society, its nature and 
        purpose in relation to other societies" - Charles Adams. 
        Clear, well-organized).

Khomeini, A.
____ Islam and Revolution. From New Era, Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 460 pp. Khoury, Fred. 1985 The Arab-Israeli Dilemma. Syracuse. 3rd ed. 605 pp. (History of Palestine from 1900 to 1985. Well documented, balanced college text). Maududi, Abul A'la. ____ First Principles of Islamic State. From New Era, Ann Arbor, MI, 70 pp. ____ Human Rights in Islam. New Era, Ann Arbor, MI, 40 pp. ____ Rights of Non-Muslims in an Islamic State. From New Era Publishers, Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 32 pp. (An outstanding Muslim 20th century Pakistani leader presents an orthodox answer to political problems). Mortimer, Edward. 1982 Faith and Power: The Politics of Islam. NY: Random House, 432 pp. (A Middle East specialist and journalist analyzes how Muslims have developed interpretations of Islam in six Muslim areas. "Full of original ideas and sound judgments" - A. Hourani). Mottahedeh, Roy. 1985 The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran. NY: Pantheon. 416 pp. ("This fascinating narrative parallels the story of a modern mullah with the history of Iran ... the portrait of a society caught in the contradiction of the 20th century"). Pipes, Daniel. 1983 In the Path of God: Islam and Political Power. NY: Basic Books, 373 pp. (Pipes sees the present resurgence of fundamentalism as an opiate which only delays serious grapling with Westernization). Piscatori, James P. (Ed.) 1983 Islam in the Political Process. Cambridge: CUP. 240 pp. Pratt, Cranford, et al. 1979 Peace, Justice and Reconciliation in the Arab-Israeli Conflict. NY: Friendship Press, 62 pp. (Seven Canadian scholars present "A Christian Perspective". Useful for discussion groups). Roberts, Robert. 1925 The Social Laws of the Qur'an. London. 126 pp. (Compares the laws of Islam with Jewish and other law codes. Short but useful). Rodinson, Maxime. 1973 Islam and Capitalism. London: Pantheon. 308 pp. (Is Islam favorable to feudalism, capitalism, or socialism, or a new system?) 1979 Marxism and the Muslim World. London: Zed Press. (Noted French Marxist scholar presents materials that could be useful to help workers understand leftist and secular Muslims). Rosenthal, E.I.J. 1965 Islam in the Modern National State. Cambridge. Said, Edward W. 1978 Orientalism. NY: Pantheon. (The methodology of Western science in its study of the "Third World" criticized). 1979 The Question of Palestine. NY: Vintage. 1981 Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. (An Arab Christian professor of literature corrects Western ideas on Palestine, Islam, etc.) Schacht, J. 1964 An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford: Clarendon. ("A work of established scholarship by an expert in the field." - Cragg). Watt, W. Montgomery. 1970 Islamic Political Thought: The Basic Concepts. Edinburgh. Wright,Robin. 1986 Sacred Rage: The Crusade of Militant Islam. NY. Touchstone. 336 pp. (An able journalist unveils a decade of Islamic resurgence and its implications for the West). B. WOMEN AND THE FAMILy IN ISLAM. Abdul-Rauf, Muhammad. 1979 The Islamic View of Women and the Family. NY: Robert Speller and Sons. Ahmad, Khurshid. ____ Family Life in Islam. New Era, Ann Arbor, MI, 38 pp. ____ Position of Women in Islam. From New Era. 37 pp. Beck, Lois and Nikki Keddie (Editors). 1978 Women in the Muslim World. Cambridge: Harvard. 698 pp. (36 essays on Middle East, China, etc.). Bevan-Jones, V.R. and L. Bevan Jones. 1941 Women in Islam: A Manual with Special Reference to Conditions in India. Lucknow, India: Lucknow Pub. House. (Veteran missionaries provide in-depth view). 1941 The Approach to Muslim Women: A Supplement to Women in Islam. Lucknow Publishing House. Burness, Margaret. 1980 What Would You Say If ...; Plays to Help Christian Witness to Muslim Women. Africa Christian Press, Box 30, Achimota, Ghana. Douglas, Mary. 1966 Purity and Dancer: An Analysis of the the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Esposito, John. ____ Women in Muslim Family Law. From New Era, Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 155 pp. Fernea, Elizabeth W. 1965 Guests of the Sheikh: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Book. 1975 A Street in Marrakech: A Personal Encounter with the Lives of Morroccan Women. Garden City, NY: Anchor. Fernea, Elizabeth W. and Basima Qattan Bezirgan (Editors). 1977 Middle Eastern Women Speak. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press. (A collection of personal sketches, spanning 13 centuries which gives superb insights into the diversity of the experiences of Muslim women). Ghani, A. ____ Rights and Duties of a Husband and Wife. From New Era, Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 64 pp. Gulick, John and Margaret Gulick. 1974 Annotated Bibliography of Sources Concerned with Women in the Modern Muslim Middle East. Princeton Univ. Press. 26 pp. (Almost 200 annotated entries). Hussain, Freda. (Ed.) 1984 Muslim Women. London: St. Martins Jeffery, Patricia. 1979 Frogs in a Well: Indian Women in Purdah. From Zed Press, 57 Caledonian Rd, London N1 9DN, UK. Maududi, Abul A'la. ____ Birth Control. From New Era, Ann Arbor, MI. 182 pp. ____ Purdah and the Status of Women in Islam. New Era, Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 223 pp. ____ The Question of Dress. From New Era. 20 pp. Mernissi, Fatima. 1975 Beyond the Veil: Male/Female Dynamics in a Modern Muslim Society. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Pub. Co. Minai, Naila. 1981 Women in Islam: Tradition and Transition in the Middle East. NY: Seaview Books. al-Qazzaz, Ayad. 1977 Women in the Middle East and North Africa: An Annotated Bibliography. Austin: Univ. of Texas. 178 pp. (lengthy annotations). Raccagni, Michelle. 1978 The Modern Arab Woman: A Bibliography. From New Era, Box 8139 Ann Arbor, MI. 262 pp. Siddiqui, M. Mazheruddin. ____ Women in Islam. From New Era, Ann Arbor. 231 pp. Smith, Jane. I. (Ed.) 1980 Women in Contemporary Muslim Societies. Cranbury, N.J. Associated University Press. Zwemer, A.E. and Samuel Zwemer. 1926 Moslem Women. W. Medford, MA: Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions. Zwemer, Samuel. 1915 Childhood in the Moslem World. NY: Fleming H. Revell. Zwemer Institute of Muslim Studies. 1988 Books on Women and Islam. unpublished paper. From ZIMS Box 365, Altadena, CA 91001. (Titles chosen with Christian worker in mind). 7. ARABIC, LANGUAGES, LITERATURE, ART, CULTURE, EDUCATION. Bosworth, C.E. and Joseph Schacht. 1979 The Legacy of Islam. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. ("Contributions by leading scholars on aspects of Muslim civilization"). Burckhardt, Titus. 1976 Art of Islam. World of Islam Festival Trust, Kent, UK: Westerham Press. 204 pp. Cragg, Kenneth. 1965 Counsels in Contemporary Islam. Edinburgh. ("Offers a full bibliography of modern Muslim writing and a review of the major themes and movements of its inner debate.") Creswell, Sir K.A.C. 1960 Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts, and Crafts of Islam to 1st January 1960. Cairo: American Univ. in Cairo Press. (A massive work by a scholar who gave almost 50 years to study Muslim culture. Almost 16,000 entries). 1973 A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts, and Crafts of Islam Supplement' January 1960 to January 1972. (Like the first volume, weak on China and S.E. Asia). Pearson, J.D. et al. 1984 A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts, and Crafts of Islam by Sir K.A.C. Creswell, C.B.E., Second Supplement, January 1972 to December 1980. 578 pp. (Corrects former omissions on China and S.E. Asia) Kritzeck, James. (Editor) 1966 Anthology of Islamic Literature. NY: Mentor. ("Translations of selections from the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish literary traditions from the rise of Islam to the modern era"). 1970 Modern Islamic Literature. (A broad selection of writings, including poetry, from 1800 to the 1960s). Rice, David Talbert. 1975 Islamic Art. London: Thames & Hudson 288 pp. 248 plates. revised. (Covers up to 17th century and east to Afghanistan. Some inaccuracies but inexpensive). Safadi, Yasin Hamid. 1979 Islamic Calligraphy. Shambala Publishers, 1123 Spruce St. Boulder, CO 80302. Savory, R.M. (Editor) 1979 Introduction to Islamic Civilization. NY: CUP. 204 pp. (18 essays by leading scholars widely dealing broad aspects of Islamic civilization). Ullah, Najib. 1963 Islamic Literature. NY: Washington Square Press. 441 pp. (An introductory history with selections from Arabic, Persian, and Turkish). 8. MUSLIM PEOPLES. HISTORY. ANTHROPOLOGY. ISLAM IN MODERN HISTORY. Binder, Leonard (Ed.) 1976 The Study of the Middle East. NY: John Wiley. Boland, B.J. 1971 The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. (Relates efforts of Muslim leaders to counter Pancasila, secularists, Marxists, Christians, and other Muslims). Cooley, John K. 1965 Baal, Christ, and Muhammad: Religion and Revolution in North Africa. NY: Holt, Rinehart L Winston. 370 pp. Cragg, Kenneth. 1958 Sandals at the Mosque. London. (Highly regarded as an essential for workers among Muslims). Donohue, John J. and John L. Esposito. (Eds.) 1982 Islam in Transition. NY: OUP. 322 pp. (A source book of 57 Muslim spokesmen on Islam, the modern state, social change, with case studies of Egypt, Pakistan, and Iran). Eickelman. Dale F. 1981 The Middle East: An Anthropolical Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Esposito, John L. (Ed.) 1983 Voices of Resurgent Islam. NY: OUP 294 pp. Key spokesman for modern Islam and Western scholars study problems of Islamic identity and resurgence). Fisher, Allan and Humphrey Fisher. 1970 Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa. C. Hurst & Co. (Useful information for those who associate slavery with "Christian" western states. See also "The Arabs as Slavers" by John Laffin in Case Studies on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, vol 4. The Hague: Foundation for the Study of Plural Societies, 1976.) Friedmann, Yohanan. (Ed.) 1984 Islam in Asia. Vol. 1,Boulder, CO: Westview. (Helpful articles by experts on South Asia). Geddes, Charles L. 1972 An Analytical Guide to the Bibliographies on Modern Egypt and the Sudan. Denver: American Institute of Islamic Studies. 78 pp. (An annotated list of books and articles since 1789). Geertz, Clifford. 1968 Islam Observed. New Haven. (A sensitive comparison of the forms of Islam in Morocco and Indonesia.) Gellner, Ernest. 1969 Saints of the Atlas. London. Weidenfeld & Nicholson. 317 pp. (An anthropological study of Berber tribal government led by hereditary saints. An invaluable account of popular practices and the role of the saint and Sufi lodges). 1981 Muslim Society. Cambridge. Gibb, H.A.R. 1947 Modern Trends in Islam. Univ. of Chicago Press. (Dated but still useful for broad view and comparisons). Gilsenan, Michael. 1982 Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Arab World. NY: Pantheon. 287 pp. (Explores various Muslim social strata and linkages, how they shape Islam and are shaped by Islam. Helps promote sensitivity to social intricacies and how to study them). Grunebaum, G.E. von. 1962 Modern Islam: The Search for Cultural Identity. Berkeley. Gulick, John. 1976 The Middle East: An Anthropolical Perspective. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear Publishing. Hooker, M.B. 1983 Islam in South East Asia. Leiden: E.J. Brill. Indian Council on Social Science Research. 1983 Selected Bibliography on Indian Muslims. From Library, Osmania University, Indian Council on Social Science Research, Hyderabad, 500 007, India. (Covers all areas of Indian Muslim life. 4428 entries). Israeli, Raphaeli and A.H. Johns, (Editors). 1984 Islam in Asia: South East and East Asia. Vol. 2, Boulder, CO: Westview. (Articles by specialists on various countries and problems). Jansen, G.H. 1979 Militant Islam. London: Pan Books. 224 pp. (Strongly anti-Western Muslim evaluation of the Islamic resurgence). Jennings, George J. 1983 A Middle East Consultant Views Middle Eastern Culture and Personality. 103 pp. (A mission leader provides socio-anthropological material useful to Westerners working among Muslims) 1986 Welcome into the Middle East. From Middle East Missions Research, P.O. Box 632, Le Mars, Iowa 51031 Kettani, Dr. M.A. (Ed.) 1986 Muslim Minorities in the World TodaY. London: Mansell. (Useful to find out who the important minorities are, their location, and their problems). Kritzeck, J. and W. Lewis. 1968 Islam in Africa. Laffin, John. 1979 The Dagger of Islam. London: Sphere Books. 184 pp. (An experienced journalist writes an easily read survey of Muslim agitation on a popular level). Lewis, Bernard. 1964 The Arabs in History. 3rd ed. London: Hutchinson. (Short interpretative survey. Excellent study). Nimtz, Jr. August H. 1980 Islam and Politics in East Africa. Univ. of Minn. Press. Patai, Raphael. 1976 The Arab Mind. NY: Scribners. 376 pp. (Much used study, helpful to explore Arab values). Pullapilly, Cyriac K. (Ed.) 1980 Islam in the Contemporary World. Notre Dame, IN: Cross Roads Books. (Articles on various Muslim countries with some short, but perceptive discussions of major Muslim minorities). Smith, W, Cantwell. 1967 Islam in Modern History. Princeton Univ. Press. (Dated, but an important analysis of the Muslim experience in the modern era and the sense of crisis it engenders). Stoddard, Phillip H. et al. 1981 Change and the Muslim World. SYracuse Univ. Press. 187 pp. (Short articles by specialists on various Muslim countries). Voll, John Obert. 1982 Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 397 pp. (Covers the broad sweep of Islam from the 18th century to the present studying four types of Islam). Weekes, Richard V. (Ed.) 1984 Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic survey. 2 vol. 2nd edition. Westwood, CN: Greenwood Press. 953 pp. (The best survey in existence. Deals with 190 peoples, providing a useful bibliography for each). Young, Ian Dr. 1974 The Private Life of Islam. Allen Lane. (Algerian Muslims in their "unguarded moments" <deals with sexuality>. "Cannot be too higly recommended." - Laffin) 9. ISLAM AND OTHER RELIGIONS, CIVILIZATIONS, AND THE WEST. Ahmad, Aziz. 1964 Islamic Culture in Its Indian Environment. Oxford. 'Ali, Muhammad. 1950 The Reliqion of Islam. Lahore: Ahmadiyyah Anjuman Isha'at Islam. (A "veritable bible of Muslim modernism." Able and engaging). Blair, John C. 1925 The Sources of Islam. Madras: Christian Literature Society. Bravmann, M.M. 1972 The Spiritual Background of Early Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 336 pp. (Difficult technical study of basic Muslim concepts such as "manly virtue", religion <din>, Islam, "faith", sunnah, and themes like life and death). Fyzee. Asaf A.A. 1963 A Modern Approach to Islam. Bombay. (A short, helpful study of the relations of Islam with other religions, especially Hinduism.) Geiger, Abraham. 1970 Judaism and Islam. NY: KTAV Publishing House 170 pp. (A pioneering work of 1832 that concludes that Jewish and other sources were used by Muhammad through oral communication. Influential). Gillilland, Dean. 1986 African Religion meets Islam. Lanham, MD: University Press. 241 pp. (Scholar with missionary experience gives gives excellent historical survey with insight into contemporary issues). Haddad, Yvonne, Byron Haines, and Ellison Findly (Eds.) 1984 The Islamic Impact. Syracuse Univ. Press. 249 pp. (10 essays covering comtemporary problems). Katsch, Abraham. 1954 Judaism in Islam. NY: New York Univ. Press. Levtzion, N. 1979 Conversion to Islam. NY: Holmes & Meier. (Studies what elements in Islam attracts Africans and others). Simon, Gottfried. The Progress and Arrest of Islam in Sumatra. London: Marshall. 1912. 328 pp. (Studies confrontation of Islam, Christianity, and animism in Batak society. Perhaps useful for comparison with similar situations in Africa). Slomp, Jan (Ed.) 1982 The Churches and Islam in Europe (II). 76 pp. From CEC, 150 Route de Ferney, P.O. Box 66, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland. (Studies problems of relations between the churches and Muslims. Contains a short bibliography on Muslim-Christian relations). Tisdall, W. St. Clair. 1901 The Sources of Islam. A 1973 reprint available from Amarko Book Agency, B-42, Amar Colony, New Delhi 110024. India. (Six disturbing chapters for the Muslim who believes Islam came down from heaven complete and perfect. A brief look at pagan, Jewish, Christian, and Zoroastrian sources). Torrey, C.C. 1933 The Jewish Foundation of Islam. NY: Jewish Institute of Religion Press. (Influential study presenting evidence for Jewish elements in Islam). Trimingham, J. Spencer. 1968 The Influence of Islam Upon Africa. New York: Praeger. See also his Islam in Ethiopia (1952), and Islam in West Africa (1959). Westermarck, Edward. 1933 Pagan Survivals in Mohammedan Civilisation. London: Macmillan. Ye'or, Bat. 1984 The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam. Fairleigh Dickinson. (Shows Muslim repression of minorities). Zwemer, Samuel. 1920 The Influence of Animism on Islam. NY: Macmillan. (An early exploration of "folk Islam" which is still very useful). 10. CHRISTIANITy AND ISLAM. MISSIONS. THE MESSAGE AND ITS COMMUNICATION, CONVERSION, APOLOGETICS. APPROACHES. RELATIONS. A. BIOGRAPHY Alevi, K.K. 1977 In Search of Assurance. Madras: Gospel Literature Service. (Testimonies of converts. Useful for encouraying other converts and for getting insight as to what attracts Muslims to Christ). Asad, Muhammad. 1974 The Road to Mecca. Tangier. (Personal account of a Jewish intellectual's conversion to Islam). Basetti-Sani, Giulio. ____ Louis Massignon: Christian Ecumenist. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press. (Story of the noted Catholic missionary who sought irenic approaches to ministry among Muslims). Bentley-Taylor, David. 1975 My Love Must Wait: the Story of Henry Martyn. London: Inter Varsity. 160 pp. (The brief career of the first Protestant missionary to Muslims reported movingly). Bonner, Anthony. (Ed.) ____ Selected Works of Ramon Lull, 1232- 1316. 2 vols. Princeton Univ. Press. Butcher, Muriel. ____ "By Faith ..." Character Cameos from North Africa. Upper Darby, PA: NAM. (Convert's stories). Dehqani-Tafti, H.8. 1959 Design of My World. London. (Testimony of an outstanding Iranian who became a bishop). 1981 The Hard Awakeninq. London: SPCK (Relates tragedy of the loss of a son, and the churches' relations with Muslim radicals in Iran). Esther, Sister Gulshan and Thelma Sangster. 1984 The Torn Veil. Hants, UK: Marshall. 155 pp. (The testimony of a Pakistani girl who breaks through the "Koranic curtain" and her physical disabilities). Franham, Bruce. 1985 My Big Father. Kent, UK: STL Books. 208 pp. (The story of a Turkish believer with history on missions to Turkey). Gospel Missionary Union. 1988 Mustapha's Secret. From GMU, 10000 N. Oak, Kansas City, MO 64155. (A 10"x13" spiral bound flashcard book of a young convert's story which is useful for witnessing and for sunday schools. 42 pp.) Hanna, Mark. 1975 The True Path. Colorado Springs, CO: International Doorway Publishers. (Testimonies of converts from Islam). Hirji-Walji, Hass and Jaryl Strong. 1981 Escape from Islam. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House. 144 pp. (A young Indian in Uganda overcomes prejudices and family pressures). Lotfi, Nasser. 1980 Iranian Christian. Waco, TX: Word. 163 pp. (The conversion of an military man who has become an evangelist). Masood, Steven. ____ Into the Light. From STL, Box 48, Bromley, Kent, UK. 157 pp. (A young Muslims search for the truth). Miller, William. 1969 Ten Muslims Meet Christ. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Padwick, Constance E. ____ Temple Gairdner of Cairo. (Story of the creative British worker who was a contemporary of Zwemer). ____ Henry Martyn, Confessor of the Faith. (Story of the Cambridge graduate who burned out for God in India). Paul, R.D. 1969 Lights in the World. Lucknow: ISPCK. 125 pp. (The testimonies of two converts). Rasooli, Jay M. and H. Allen Cady. 1957 Dr. Sa'eed of Iran. From William Carey Library, Box 40129, Pasadena, CA 91104. 189 pp. (Amazing story of a Kurdish Iranian doctor who was one of the most godly converts from Islam). Smith, Margaret. 1944 Al-Ghazali, the Mystic. London: Luzac. 247 pp. (The life, personality, mystical teaching of al-Ghazali with an evaluation of his role in Islamic history). Voillaume, R. 1955 Seeds of the Desert: The Legacy of Charles de Foucauld. London. (Story of influential Catholic scholar and missionary who sought positive links with Muslims). Watt, W. Montgomery. 1963 Muslim Intellectual: A Study of Al-Ghazali. Edinburgh. Wilson, J. Christy. 1952 Apostle to Islam: A Biographv of S.M. Zwemer. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Story of the scholar-missionary who aroused the church to the needs of Islam. Contains a bibliography of all Zwemer's writings). Wootton, R.W.F. 1982 Jesus, More Than a Prophet. From STL, Box 48, Bromley, Kent, UK. 80 pp. (15 Muslims tell how they found Christ). Zwemer, Samuel M. 1902 Ravmond Lull: First Missionary to the Moslems. New York. B. APOLOGETICS. APPROACHES. MISSIONS. WITNESSING. RELATIONS, ETC. Abdul-Haqq, Abdiyah A. 1980 Sharinq Your Faith with a Muslim. Minneapolis: Bethany Press. 189 pp. (Not a manual for witnesses as the title might imply, but an excellent grappling with the major issues of the Bible, the person of Christ, and salvation). Addison, James T. 1942 The Christian Approach to the Muslim. New York. 365 pp. (A historical survey of missions to Islam from the beginning with a country by country study). Aziz-us-Samad. U. 1976 A Comparative Study of Christianity and Islam. From New Era. Box 8139, Ann Arbor, MI 48107. 188 p. (Islam as the revival and true religion of Jesus). Bailey, Kenneth E. 1973 The Cross and the Prodiqal. St. Louis, MO: Concordia. 134 pp. (Gives an example from Luke 15 on how to present Christian truth through narrative. Useful for learning to witness apart from propositional "plans of salvation.") 1976 God is ... Dialogues on the Nature of God for Younq People. From Youth Club Program, 700 Dewberry Rd. Monroeville, PA 15146. 278 pp. (Use of parables and dialogue to present truth to an average Muslim). Bentley-Taylor, David 1967 The Weathercock's Reward: Christian Progress in Muslim Java. London: OMF. (Deals with the history of reaching Javanese and Madurese to the 1960s). Browne, L.E. 1955 The Quickeninq Word. Cambridge: W. Heffner. (Some key theological issues answered). Bucaille, Maurice. 1978 The Bible, the Qur'an, and Science. From American Trust Publications, 7216 S. Madison Ave. Indianapolis, IN 46227. 253 pp. (A French convert to Islam tries to prove that the Qur'an anticipates modern science and is therefore a divine revelation, superior to Scriptures. Widely heralded in Muslim circles as a definitive proof of Islam). [Cf. this response.] Christensen, Jens. 1977 The Practical Approach to Muslims. NAM (An extended discussion of controversial issues pertinent to missions by an experienced church leader in Pakistan. Specially prepared for Christian workers). Clark, Dennis 1977 Jesus Christ, His Life and Teachinq. From David C. Cook, 850 N. Grove, Elgin, IL 60120 320 pp. (A useful biography of Christ to give to Muslims). Committee of Evangelical Missionaries to Islam. 1960 Report of the Conference of Missionaries to Islam.. (A series of conferences from 1960 to 1968 issued Reports containing useful articles for workers in various ministries. Reports issued every two years). Cooper, Anne. (compiler). 1985 Ishmael My Brother: A Biblical Course on Islam. Bromley, Herts, Kent: STL Books. 217 pp. (A good survey for beginners in Muslim work). Cragg, Kenneth. 1984 Muhammad and the Christian. London: Darton, Longmans, and Todd. (An erudite Christian view of Muhammad). 1985 Jesus and the Muslim. London: George Allen & Unwin. 315 pp. (Compares portrayal of Jesus in the Koran, Traditions, and the Scriptures on a deeper level). Deedat, Ahmed. 1980 Is the Bible God's Word?. From Islamic Propagation Centre, 47 Madressa Arcade, Durban 4001, South Africa. 64 pp. (Deedat distributes a series of anti Christian polemical material in books, tracts and cassettes). Dretke, James P. 1979 A Christian Approach to Muslims. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. 261 pp. (A practical study from the former director of the "Islam in Africa" project). Elder, J. 1978 Biblical Approach to the Muslim. Houston: LIT International. (A simple self study course for witnesses by an experienced missionary). al-Faruqi, Ismail. 1962 Christian Ethics, A Historical and Systematic Analysis of Its Dominant Ideas. Montreal. Fellowship of Faith for Muslims. ____ Literature Resource Pool. (FFM has a repository of tracts, booklets, books, radio scripts and other materials useful for Muslim ministries). Finlay, Matt. H. 1968 Face the Facts, Questions and Answers Concerninq the Christian Faith. Bombay: Gospel Literature Service. (A small useful book, inoffensive to Muslims, but which answers typical Muslim problem areas). Gauhar, Altaf. 1978 The Challenge of Islam. London Gilchrist, John. 1986 Christianity and Islam Series. From MERCSA. (A very useful set of studies, 27 to 35 pages long, on controversial issues). The titles are: An Analytical Study of the Cross and_the Hijrah. Nuzul-i-Isa: The Second Cominq of Jesus Christ. Al-Masihu-Isa: The Glory of Jesus the Messiah. The Uniqueness of Jesus in the Qur'an and the Bible. The Titles of Jesus in the Qur'an and the Bible. Millat-a-Ibrahim: The True Faith of Abraham. The Love of God in the Qur'an and the Bible. The Temple, the Ka'aba, and the Christ. 1979 Qur'an and Bible Series. (A set of short essays which can be used with Muslims). Titles include: The Crucifixion of Christ: A Fact, not Fiction. What indeed was the Sign of Jonah? The Textual History of the Qur'an and the Bible. Christ in Islam and Christianity. Is Muhammad Foretold in the Bible? Origins and Sources of the Gospel of Barnabas. 1984 Evidences for the Collection of the Qur'an. 24 pp. 1988 The Christian Witness to the Muslim. (Fruit of Gilchrist's long experience in apologetics with Muslims). Hahn, Ernest. n.d. Man, Sin, and Salvation Series. From FFM, 205 Yonge St. Toronto MB5 IN2. (Booklets on key issues). Jesus in Islam: A Christian View. From FFM. Harris, G.K. 1957 How to Lead Muslims to Christ. London: CIM (Now OMF). (An old China hand gives tips on apologetic issues). Jadeed, Iskander. n.d. Sin and Atonement in Islam and Christianity. From Centre for Young Adults, P.O. Box 354, CH-4019 Basel, Switzerland. 48 pp. (Jadeed has several essays in various languages useful for his style of presentation and also to give to Muslims). Other titles include: Did God Appear in the Flesh? 48 pp. God and Christ 48 pp. Person of Christ in the Gospel and the Quran. 72 pp. How Do We Pray? 40 pp. Infallibility of the Torah and the Gospel. 64 pp. The Cross in the Gospel and the Quran. 50 pp. Jomier, J. 1964 The Bible and the Koran. NY: Desclee Co. 120 pp.
(Useful to verify Scriptures to Muslims). 1974 Jesus, The Life of the Messiah. 228 pp. From Christian Literature Society, Box 501, Park Town, Madras 60003, India. (Biography for Muslims). Jones, L. Bevan. 1964 Christianity Explained to Muslims. rev. ed. 173 pp. Reprinted by ELD, 3, R.N. Mukherjee Rd., Calcutta, 700 001, India. (Perhaps the best of manuals for answering Muslim objections. Also good for use with Ahmadiyya). Joseph, John. 1983 Muslim Christian Relations and Inter-Christian Rivalries in the Middle East. Albany, NY: SUNY Kateregga, B.D. and D.W. Shenk. 1980 Islam and Christianity. From Uzima Press, Box 48127, Nairobi, Kenya. 182 pp. ("A Muslim and a Christian in dialogue" in 24 chapters. Each presents his beliefs which is followed by the other's response). Koelle, S.W. 1889 Mohammed and Mohammedanism Critically Considered. London. (Older style, condemnatory apologetics. Useful information). Kraemer, Hendrik. 1958 From Missionfield to Independent Church. The Hague: Boekcentrum. (Kraemer surveyed mission work in Java before World War II. His insights still relevant to Muslim ministry). Lenning, Larry. 1980 Blessing in Mosque and Mission. Pasadena, CA: Wm. Carey Library. 156 pp. (Builds a conceptual bridge to the Muslim mind by use of baraka). Levonian, Loutfi. 1940 Studies in the Relationship between Christianity and Islam. London. (Believes the basic difference between the two religions lies in their concepts of "spirit"). Madany, Bassam M. 1981 Sharing God's Word with a Muslim. From Back to God Hour, 6555 W. College Dr. Palos Heights, IL 60463. 92 pp. (A broadcaster with over 20 years experience shares a Biblical way of teaching the Christian faith to Muslims"). Marsh, Charles R. 1975 Share Your Faith with a Muslim. Chicago: Moody. 96 pp. (Practical suggestions for witnessing from a worker in Africa for some 45 years). Also from STL, 9, London Rd., Bromley, Kent, UK). Massey, Kundan L. 1980 Tide of the Supernatural. From CCC, Box 1576, San Bernadino, CA 92402. 184 pp. ("A call to love for the Muslim world." Based on extensive experience in Pakistan and the Middle East, Massey presents keys for ministry through personal experiences). Matheny, Tim. 1981 Reaching the Arabs: A Felt Need Approach. Pasadena, CA: William Carey. 244 pp. (Points out cultural themes, social structures, and basic human needs as potential tools for effeective witness). McCurry, Don. (Ed.) 1979 The Gospel and Islam: A 1978 Compendium. Monrovia: MARC. 638 pp. (A compilation of articles written by 43 authors on Islamic themes). McDowell, Josh and John Gilchrist. 1983 The Islam Debate. From CCC, Box 1576, San Bernadino, CA 92414. (An example of a formal debate against Ahmed Deedat, an unorthodox debater). Miller, William. 1976 A Christian's Response to Islam. Nutley, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Pub. Co. (Also STL Books, Kent, UK. Practical helps from a missionary with over 50 years experience in Iran and N. America). NAM. (now Arab World Ministries) 1976 Reachinq Muslims Today. From STL Box 48, Bromley, Kent, UK. or AWM, Box 96, Upper Darby, PA 19082. 63 pp. (Tool for anyone wanting basic information for ministry to Muslims). Nazir-Ali, Michael. 1984 Islam: A Christian Perspective. Exeter, UK: Paternoster. 185 pp. (Excellent broad sweep of contemporary issues such as the Christian mission to Islam, fundamentalism, Islamic culture, Muhammad). Nehls, Gerhard. 1980 Christians Answer Muslims. From Life Challenge, Box 273, Claremont 7735, South Africa. 148 pp. (Answers criticisms of the Bible and key Christian doctrines) n.d. Christians Ask Muslims. Cape Town: Life Challenge. 142 pp. (Discusses contradictions in the Qur'an, its collection and sources, the numerology of 19, ethics, and the claims of Muhammad). n.d. The Great Commission, You and the Muslims. 113 pp. (Strategies and hints on how to be a better witness with a survey of the history and teachings of Islam). Parrinder, Geoffrey. 1977 Jesus in the Qur'an. NY: OUP. 187 pp. (Best source for workers who need to know what Muslims should believe about Jesus. Covers all references). Parshall, Phil. 1975 The Fortress and the Fire. (Based on Bangladesh experience, Parshall deals with chief social and religious hindrances to Muslim reception of Christ). 1980 New Paths in Muslim Evangelism. Grand Rapids: Baker, 280 pp. (A controversial presentation of contextualization, its principles, application, and potential, in a Muslim context). 1983 Bridnes to Islam. Grand Rapids: Baker. 163 pp. (Deals with Folk Islam, Sufism, mysticism, and how to use "bridges" within them to present the Gospel). 1985 Beyond the Mosque. Grand Rapids: Baker. 256 pp. (Promotes a deeper Christian understanding of the the Muslim "ummah" and how a Christian community might take shape without extracting converts from their culture). Pfander, C.G. 1910 The Mizanu'l Haqq. ('Balance of Truth'). From the Centre for Young Adults, CH-4019 Basel, P.O. Box 354, Switzerland. 370 pp. (Tisdall's revision of the 1835 Persian classic apologetic work which provoked "the Great Controversy" of the 19th century. Pfander, in 3 parts, seeks to prove the Bible is uncorrupted, nor abrogated, that the major Christian doctrines are true, and challenges the claims made for Muhammad and the Qur'an. He gave 40 years to study and ministry among Muslims, 1825-65) Ragg, Lonsdale and Laura Ragg. 1980 The Gospel of Barnabas. 5th edition, 273 pp. From Igram Press, 2020 16th Ave. S.W., Cedar Rapids, IA 52406. (The Unity sect uncritically presents the edition of the "Gospel" by M.A. Rahim, Sec. General of the Quran Council of Pakistan, without critical remarks of the Raggs). Rice, W.A. 1910 Crusaders of the Twentieth Century. London: CMS. (The most extensive practical witnessing tool ever written for missionaries to Muslims. Despite its unfortunate title, it is a goldmine of practical helps covering almost every area of ministry and apologetics. About 560 pages' with a detailed table of contents. Needs updating in certain areas). Richter, J. 1910 Protestant Missions in the Near East. Edinburgh. (Useful for gaining background of mission strategies, policies, and results in a context of traditional churches). Riggs, Henry H. (Ed.) 1938 Near East Council Inquiry on the Evangelization of Moslems. Beirut. (New workers will find the deliberations of former generations of missionaries surprisingly contemporary and insightful). Robson, James. 1929 Christ in Islam. London: John Murray. Samartha, S.J. and J.B. Taylor, (Editors) 1977 Christian-Muslim Dialogue. Geneva: WCC. 167 pp. (Papers presented at the Broumana Consultation, July 1977). Schlorff, Samuel P. 1981 Discipleship in Islamic Society. From FFM or AWM, Box 96, Upper Darby, PA 19082. 77 pp. (Sections on discipleship qualities in convert churches, obstacles in the Muslim worldview, and positive doctrine in an Islamic context). 1984 The Missionary Use of the Qur'an: An Historical and Theological Study of the Contextualization of the Gospel. (A Westminster thesis that grapples with a fundamental issue all missionaries must face: the use of the Qur'an in Christian witness. Part I gives the history of Protestant use of the Qur'an. Then it deals with how we can find a contextual model, and a hermeneutic that will provide a valid evangelical philosophy of use of the Qur'an. Anticipated publication by William Carey Library in 1988. Excellent in-depth study). Shenk, David W. 1981 The Holy Book of God: an Introduction. From A.C. Press, P.O. Box 30, Achimota, Ghana. 69 pp. (An excellent answer to the question whether Christians have changed the Scriptures. Designed to be given to a Muslim). Shumaker, C. Richard (Ed.) 1974 Media in Islamic Culture. Wheaton, IL: Evangelical Literature Overseas. (Media specialists wrestle with the communication problems of the Gospel in Muslim contexts. Valuable resource materials). Slomp, Jan. 1974 Pseudo-Barnabas in the Context of Muslim-Christian Apoloqetics. Hyderabad: Henry Martyn Institute. Spenser, H 1956 Islam and the Gospel of God. From FFM or ISPCK, P.O. Box 1585, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110006, India. 122 pp. (Shows disparity of meaning when Christians and Muslims use the same terms. This grows out of the divergent conceptions of God). Stacey, Vivienne. n.d. Practical Lessons for Evangelism among Muslims. Wiesbaden, Germany: Orientdienst. 27 pp. (Short, practical tool for witnessing, with a special attention to ministry among women). Steele, Francis R. 1981 Not in Vain: The Story of the North African Mission. Pasadena, CA: William Carey. (History of a mission with a century of experience working among Muslims). Sweetman, J. Windrow. 1947 Islam and Christian Theology: A Study of Theological Ideas in the Two Religions. 4 vols. London: Lutterworth. (Scholarly, detailed survey of theological and philosophical development in Islam in relation to Christianity. Unsurpassed. FFM has a brief abridgement). Syrjanen, Seppo. 1987 In Search of Meaning and Identity: Conversion to Christianity in Pakistani Muslim Culture. Vammala, Finland: The Finnish Society for Missiology and Ecumenics. 247 pp. (A scholarly research project using 36 Pakistani converts as informants and giving reasons why Christianity is not attractive to Pakistanis. Syrjanen is au courant with current research in the psychology of conversion). Thomsen, Mark. et al. 1986 God and Jesus: Theological Reflections for Christian-Muslim Dialog. From DWMIC, American Lutheran Church, 422 S. 5th St. Minneapolis, MN 55415. 94 pp. (A task force deals with problems like how to witness a trinitarian faith to Muslims. Is our purpose dialog or conversion? And "What mission stance and strategy have integrity in witnessing ...?") Tisdall, W. St. Clair. 1895 The Religion of the Crescent. London: SPCK 1980 Christian Reply to Muslim Objections. From Light of Life, P.O. Box 13, A-9503, Villach, Austria. (A reprint of the excellent, "A Manual of the Leading Muhammedan Objections to Christianity." done in 1904 by an outstanding apolgete). Vander Werff, Lyle L. 1977 Christian Mission to Muslims: The Record. Pasadena, CA: William Carey. 366 p. (A masterly survey of "Anglican and Reformed Approaches in India and the Near East, 1800-1938." Excellent evaluations and bibliographies of Tisdall, Gairdner, and Zwemer. Does not deal with S.E. Asia or China). Watt, W. Montgomery. 1983 Islam and Christianity Today. London: Routledge Kegan Paul. 157 pp. Wherry, E.M. 1905 The Muslim Controversy. Madras: Christian Literature Society. 1910 Islam Refuted on Its Own Ground. Madras: CLS (Written by an able Muslim controversialist) Wilson, J. Christy. 1950 The Christian Message to Islam. NY: Fleming Revell. 189 pp. ("This is a book of methods of approach to Islam" of a missionary who had 20 years of experience when he wrote. Stresses "Speaking the truth in love.") Willis, A.T. 1977 Indonesian Revival: Why Two Million Came to Christ. Pasadena, CA: William Carey. 263 pp. (Deals with some of the social, political, and religious factors in the turning of masses of Javanese to Christ). Wismer, Don. 1977 The Islamic Jesus: An Annotated Bibliography of Sources in English and French. NY: Garland Publishers. 305 pp. (Annotated listing of 726 entries). Zwemer. Samuel. 1912 The Moslem Christ. London: Oliphants. 198 pp. Excellent treatment of Islamic sources on Jesus and how to preach Christ). 1923 The Law of Apostasy in Islam. London 1946 Heirs of the Prophets: An Account of the Clergy and Priests of Islam. Chicago.

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