the Meccans, who were so blind and obtuse that they did not realize that the
Muslims were encroaching more and more on the territories of the pagan Arab
tribes. Husain,1 however, says it refers to the Jews, whose forts,
lands and possessions had now come unto the possession of the Muslims.
Some, apparently, were very reluctant to join in this expedition and are thus
What! will ye not fight against those (Meccans) who have broken their oaths
and aimed to expel your Apostle, and attacked you first? Will ye dread them? God
is more worthy of your fear, if ye are believers!
So make war on them: by your hands will God chastise them and will put them
to shame, and will give you victory over them. Sura At-Taubah (ix) 13-4.
Those who took an active part in the attack on Mecca and shared in the
victory over it are highly praised, and their conduct is favourably contrasted
with those who gave alms and fought for Islam after this event had shown the
power of the Prophet:
Those amongst you who contributed before the victory and fought shall be
differently treated from others amongst you: they are grander in rank than those
who gave and fought afterwards. Sura Al-Hadid (lvii) 10. 2