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DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.

O.

OATH.

Arabic yamin , pl. yaminal aiman. The teaching of the Qur'an with reference to an oath, is expressed in the following verses:-

Surah ii. 225 : "God will not; punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oath, but he will punish you for that which your hearts have assented to."

Surah v. 91 :"God will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths, but he will punish you in regard to an oath taken seriously. Its expiation shall be to feed ten poor persons with such moderate food as ye feed your own families with, or to clothe them; or to set, free a captive. But he who cannot find means shall fast three days."

Surah xvi. : "Take not your oaths between you deceitfully."

The following is the teaching of Muhammad, as given in the traditions :-

"Whoever swears to a thing and says, 'if it please God,' and acts contrary to his oath, it is no sin."

"Swear not by idols or by your own fathers".

"Swear not by God except it be to the truth."

"Whosoever swears by the prayers or by the fast, or by the pilgrimage, is not a Muslim."

The Prophet used generally to swear in these words "No, by the Turner of Hearts."

According to the Hidayah (Hamilton's ed. vol. vi.. pp. 1, 2) yamin is constituted by the use of the name of Almighty God, or by any of those appellations by which the Deity generally known or understood.

False oaths are of three kinds:-

(1) Al-Yaminu 'l-Ghamus

An oath taken concerning a thing already past, in which is conveyed an intentional intentional falsehood on the part of the swearer: such an oath is highly sinful, the Prophet having declared — "Whosoever sweareth falsely, the same shall be condemned to hell."

(2) Al- Yaminu 'l-mun'aqid

An oath taken concerning a matter which is to come. Thus, a man swears that he will do such a thing, or he will not do such a thing, and where be fails in this, expiation is incumbent upon him, which expiation is established on the authority of the sacred writings.

(3) Yaminu 'l-Laghw

An oath. taken concerning an incident or transaction. already past, where the swearer believes that the matter to which he thus bears testimony accords with what he swears, though it should happen to he actually otherwise; which case it may be hoped from the divine mercy that the swearer will not be condemned for such an oath. The expiation, or kaffarah, is of no avail for the Yaminu 'l-Ghamus, but it is necessary for the Yaminu 'l-mun'aqid. It consists of either feeding or clothing ten poor persons, or releasing a Muslim captive.

The Muslim law with regard to oaths is a modification of the Talmudic law, for from the Divine Law the Jewish doctors deduced many special cases of perjury, which are thus classified :-

(1) Jus jurandum promassorium, a rash or inconsiderate oath for the future, or a false assertion respecting the past (Lev. v. 4).

(2) Vanum, an absurd contradictory assertion.

(3) Depositi, breach of contract denied (Lev. xix. 11).

(4) Testimonii, judicial perjury (Lev. v. 1). (H. W. P. in Smith's Dict. of the Bible.) The Mosaic law admitted expiation in the case of rash or forgotten oaths, vide Lev. v.4, but the Yaminu 'l-mun'aqid of Muhammadan law allows a much greater latitude, for it applies to all vows or oaths excepting those intentionally false made with regard to future events.

The teaching of Muhammadan jurists on the subject of oath's and vows, exhibits that reservatio mentalis of Muhammadan morality which is so similar to that of the Jewish Rabbis, and which was condemned by Jesus Christ in St. Matt. xxiii. 16.

Sunni writers on jurisprudence say that an oath should be expressed by such attributes of the Deity as are commonly used in swearing, such as the power, or the glory, or the might of God, because an oath is usually expressed wider one or other of those qualities; and the sense of gamin, viz. "strength" is by this means obtained, since as the swearer believes in the power, glory, and might and other attributes of the Deity, it follows that the mention of these attributes only is sufficient to strengthen the resolution in the performance of the act vowed, or the avoidance thereof.

If a man swear "by the knowledge of God," it does not constitute an oath, because an oath expressed by the knowledge of God is not in use; moreover, by "knowledge" is frequently implied merely that which is known; and in this sense the word knowledge is not expressive either of the name of God, or of any of His attributes. In the same manner, should a person swear "by the wrath of God," or "by the mercy of God," it does not constitute an oath, because an oath is not commonly expressed by any of these attributes: moreover by the word rahmah is sometimes understood "rain," and "heaven" is also occasionally expressed by that term; and by the word Ghaiz is understood


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"punishment" and none of those are either appellations or attributes of the Deity.

If a person swear by another name than that of God,—such as "the Prophet," or "the Holy Temple," this does not constitute an oath, as the Prophet has said, "if any man among you take so oath, he must swear by the name of God, or else his oath is void." If a person swear by the Qur'an, it does not constitute an oath, although the Qur'an be the word of God, because men do not swear by the Qur'an The compiler of the Hidayah observes that this is where the swearer only says," by the Prophet," or "by the temple" or "by the Qur'an." but if the swearer say, "If I act contrary to what I now say, may I be deprived "of the Prophet," or "of the temple," or "of the Qur'an," this constitutes an oath, because such privation would reduce the swearer to the state of an infidel, and the suspension of infidelity upon a condition amounts to yamin.

Abu Hanifah alleges that if a man should swear "by the truth of God ," this does not constitute an oath, and in this Imam Muhammad coincides. There are two opinions of Abu Yusuf recorded on this point. According to one, it is not an oath; but according to the other it is an oath, because truth is one of the attributes of the 'Deity, signifying the certainty of the divine existence, and hence it is the same as if the swearer were to say," by God, the truth!" and as oaths are common under this mode of expression, so an oath is hereby constituted. The argument of Imam Muhammad and Abu Hanifah is that the term "the truth," as here expressed, relates merely to the identity of the godhead as the object of obedience, and hence on oath thus expressed appears to be taken by that which is neither an appellation nor an attribute of God. The learned jurists, however, say that if a person express himself thus, "by the truth I will do so and so," this constitutes an oath, because the truth is one of the appellatives or proper names of God. But if a person 'were to say, "I will do this truly," it does not amount to an oath, because the word truly can only be taken, in. this case, as a corroboration or confirmation of the promise contained in the speech, being the same as If he were to say,"I shall do this indeed." If a man say, "I swear," or "I vow," or "I testify," whether the words "by God" be superadded or not, it constitutes an oath, because such wards are commonly used. swearing; the use of them in the present tense is undisputed; and they are also sometimes need in the future tense, where the context admits of a construction in the present; and attestation amounts to an oath, as in that sense it occurs in the sacred writings. Now sweating "by the name of God" is both customary and conformable to the divine ordanances, but without the name of God it is forbidden. When it so occurs, therefore, it must be construed into a lawful oath; hence some say that intention is not requisite in it; others, however, allege that the intention is essential, because the words here recited bear the construction of a promise, that is, they admit of being received as applying to the future, and also of being taken as a vow without the name of God.

If a person, speaking in the Persian language, were to say "I swear by God," it, amounts to an oath, because here the idiom confines the expression solely to the present; but if he were to say simply, "I swear," some allege that this does not constitute an oath. If he were to say, "I swear by the divorce of my wife," this is not an oath, as an oath is not so expressed. in practice. If a man in swearing say "by the age" or "the existence of God," it constitutes an oath, because the age or existence of God signifies his eternity, which is one of his attributes.

If a person should say, "If I do this may I be a Jew, or a Christian, or an infidel," it constitutes an oath; because, as the swearer has made the condition a sign of infidelity, it follows that he is conscious of his obligation to avoid the condition; and this obligation is possible, by making it an oath, in such a way as to render unlawful to himself that which is lawful. And if the oath relate to anything which he, has done in the time past, as if he were to say, "If I have done so may I be a Jew or an infidel." and so forth, this is yaminu 'l-Ghamis, or "perjuty." The swearer is not, however, in this case made a Jew or an infidel, because the words "may I be an infidel," and so forth, relate to some future indefinite period. Some, on the contrary, have alleged that be becomes actually as an infidel," because the penalty which the swearer imprecates upon himself relates to the present instant of hits testimony, being the same as if he were to say, "I am a Jew." &c. But the majority of doctors say, the swearer does not become a Jew or infidel in either of the oases, either in that of a vow with respect to the future, or an oath regarding the past, provided he consider this merely as a form of swearing. But If he boiler, that by thus sweating he fully subjects himself to the penalty expressed, he suffers accordingly, in either instance, because be appears consenting to infidelity, on account of having ventured upon a thing by the commission of which he conceives that he may be rendered an infidel.

If a person say, "If I do this, may, the anger of God fall upon me," this does not constitute a vow, as not being a customary mode of expression for that purpose. And so also, if a person .were to say, "May I be an adulterer or a drunkard or an usurer," because these are not generally understood or received as forms of swearing.

The following are considered the meat solemn and binding methods of taking an oath-:

1. Saying three times. "by the Great God."

2. Taking the Qur'an and saying, "by what this contains of the word of God."

3. By placing a sword on the Qur'an.

4. By saying, "I Impose upon myself divorcement."

Muhammad himself was rather given to


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swearing, and the Qur'an is full of wild oaths, one of the most terrible of which, according to the Prophet's own words, is to swear by the setting stars." (Surah lvi. 74.)

Burckhardt, in his notes on the Bedouin Arabs, says that those children of the desert often take hold of the middle of a tent pole and swear by the life of the tent and its owners.

As might be expected, from the example set them by their Prophet, Muhammadans are commonly guilty of taking God's in vain by swearing upon every petty occasion. Like the of the Greeks, the word is hardly ever out of their months.

[For further information on the subject of Oaths, see Hamilton's Hidayah, book vi the Durru 'l-Mukhtar, the Raddu 'l-Muhtar and the Fatawa-i-'Alamgiri, in loco, in which there are chapters devoted to the consideration of oaths and vows made under all circumstances of life, e.g. with respect to entering places of residence; with regard to actions; with respect to eating and drinking, speaking and conversing; of vows in manumission and divorce; with respect to buying and selling, marriage, clothing, wearing ornaments, striking, killing, the payment of money, &. etc.)

OATH, The administration of an.

An oath in a court of justice is not worthy of credit unless it be taken in the name of God, because Muhammad said, "Whosoever takes an oath otherwise than in the name of God, is most certainly a polytheist-" It is incumbent upon the Qazi, or judge, to request the swearer to corroborate his oath by reciting some of the attributes of God. For example, "I swear by God, the Righteous, the Knower of Secrets," etc. A defendant must not be required to swear by divorce or emancipation, as if he should say: "If it be true my wife is divorced, or my slave is free."

If an oath be administered to a Jew, he should say, "I swear by God who revealed the Taurat to 'Moses."

If to a Christian, he should say, "I swear by God who revealed the Injil to Jesus."

If to a Majusi or fire-worshipper, he should say, "I swear by God who created fire."

An oath cannot be administered to an idolater otherwise than in the name of God, in accordance with this verse in the Qur'an, "If ye ask of them who bath created you, verily they will say God Almighty." (Surah xxxix. 39.)

An oath cannot he administered to infidels in their places of worship, because the Qazi is not allowed to enter such a place. This applies to the places of worship of the Jews and Christians, as well as of Idolaters. (Hiddyah, vol. ii. p. 77.)

Women are not in Muslim law (as in Jewish, Mishna Sheb. Vol. ii. p 77.), forbidden to bear witness on oath.

OBSEQUIES OF THE DEAD.

[JANAZAH]

OFFENCE AGAINST THE PERSON.

OFFERINGS.

The Arabic word nazr is often used for an offering, but in its strict theological meaning it expresses a vow. Khairit pl. of Khair, is used for ordinary acts of charity. Sadiqah also expresses the same meaning. Niyaz is an offering to a saint. Zakat , the legal alms.

[For an account of these offerings refer to the words.]

OHUD.

[UHUD.]

OLD TESTAMENT.

Al-'Ahdu 'l-'Atiq Muhammad, in his Qur'an, professes to receive all the inspired books of the Old Testament. (See Surah ii. 130: "We believe in God, and what has been revealed to us, and what has been revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the Tribes, and what was brought unto the Prophets from their Lord: and we will not distinguish between any of them. and unto Him are we resigned" (i.e. Muslims). But there is no evidence that Muhammad had ever seen the Jewish Scriptures, as now received by both Jews and Christians. In the Qur'an, be mentions the Taurat of Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) of David, and makes several references to the historical portions of the Old Testament; but Jonah is the only name amongst the writers of the prophetical books (either greater or minor), of the Old Testament scriptures, mentioned in the Qur'an.

Muhammadan writers say there have been 124,000 prophets, but only eight of these have been apostles to whom the Almighty has revealed books, and that only one hundred portions, or suhuf, and four, books, or kutub, have been given to mankind. Ten portions to Adam, the first of the prophets, fifty to Seth (not once mentioned in the Qur'an), thirty to Idris or Enoch, and ten to Abraham. One book to Moses, another to David, another to Jesus, and the fourth to Muhammad.

Six of the prophets are said to have brought in new laws which successively abrogated the preceding, namely Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad.

It Is imposible to read the Qur'an carefully without arriving at the conclusion that Muhammad derived his knowledge of the events of Old Testament scriptures rather from the Rabbins and their Talmudic teaching, than from the inspired text itself. Mr. Emanuel Deutsch truly says: "Judaism forms the Israel of Muhammadanism, both general and special. It seems as if he (Muhammad) had breathed from his childhood almost the air of contemporary Judaism. such Judaism as is found by us crystallised in the Talmud, the Targam, ad the Midras." (Literary Remains, p.89.)


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The following Old Testament characters are mentioned by name in the Qur'an:-

Aaron, Harun; Abel, Habil, Cain, Qabil, Abraham, Ibrahim; Adam, Adam, Korab, Qarun, David, Da'ud, Goliath, Jalut; Enoch, Idris, Elias, Ilyas, Elijah, Alyasa, Ezra, 'Uzair, Gabriel Jibril, Gog, Yajuj, Magog, Majuj; Isaac, Ishaq, Ishmael, Isma'il, Jacob, Ya'qub, Joseph, Yusuf, Job, Aiyub, Jonah, Yunus, Joshua, Yusha; Korah. Qarun; Lot, Lut, Michael, Mika'il, Moses, Musa, Noah, Nuh Pharaoh, Firaun, Solomon, Sulaiman, Saul, Talut.

The following incidents of. Old Testameuit history are related in the. Qur'an, with a strange want of accuracy and a large admixture of Talmudic fable:-

Aaron makes a calf. Surah xx. 90.
Cain and Abel. Surah v. 30.
Abraham visited by angels. Surah xi. 72, xv. 51.
Abraham ready to sacrifice his son. Surah xxxvii. 101.
Adam, his fall Surah vii. 18, ii. 34.
Korah and his company. Surah xxviii. 76, xxix. 88, xl. 25.
Creation of the world. Surah xvi. 3, xiii. 3, xxxv. 1, 12.
David's praise of God. Surah xxxiv. 10.
Deluge. Surah liv. 9, lxix. 11, xi. 42.
Jacob goes to Egypt. Surah xii. 100.
Jonah and the fish. Surah vi. 86, x. 98, xxxvii. 139, lxviii. 48.
Joseph's history. Surah vi. 84, iii, 1, xl. 36.
Manna and qauils given. Surah vii. 160, xx. 82.
Moses strikes the rock. Surah vii. 160.
Noah's ark. Surah xi. 40.
Pharaoh. Surah ii. 4, x; 76, xliii. 45, xl. 36.
Solomon's judgment. Surah xxi. 78.
Queen of Sheba. Surah xxvii. 22.
The compiler of the Kasifu 'z-Zunur, (ed. Flügel, vol. ii. p. 458, article, Taurat) attempts an account of the Old Testament scriptures.

He divides the whole into four sections. and gives the names of the books as follows:-

(1) The Taurat, or the Five Books of Moses.

(2) Yusha' (Joshua).

Sifru 'l-Hukkam (Judges).
Shami'il (Samuel).
Sifru 'l-Muluk (Kings).

(3) Sha'ya (Isaiah).
Irmiya (Jeremiah).
Hizqil (Ezekiel).
Yunus (Jonah).

(4) Ta'rikh. A history from Adam to the building of the Temple.
Mazamir (Psalms).
Aiyub (Job).
Amsal (Proverbs).
Ahbaru 'i-Hukkam qabla 'l-Muluk (Ecclesiastes)
Nasha id li-Sulaiman (Song of Solomon).
Hikmah (Wisdom).
An-Nawah (Lamentations).
Urdshair (Esther).
Danyal (Daniel).
'Uzair (Esdras).

[PROPHETS, TAURAT, ZABUR.]

OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS, .The testimony of the Qur'an to the.

The references in the Qur'an to the sacred scriptures of the Jews and Christians are very many, and in all cases Muhammad refers to these sacred writings with the highest respect end veneration. He acknowledges their inspiration, admits the existence of such documents in his own day, and appeals to them in support of his own mission.

The following verses of the Qur'an, in which there are references to the Old and New Testament, have been placed in chronological order, and the translations are given for the most part from Sir William Muirs Manual on "The Coran," published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge : -

Surah lxxxvii. 18: "Verily this is in the books of yore; the books of Abraham and Moses."

Surah liii. 37—40: "Hath he not been told of that which. is in the pages of Moses, and of Abraham who acted faithfully? That a burdened soul shall not bear anothers burden, and that there shall be nothing (imputed) to a man, but that which he himself hath wrought," &c."

Surah xxxii. 23-25: "And verily We gave Moses the book: wherefore be not in doubt as to the reception thereof, and We made it a direction to the Israelites. And We made from among them leaders who should direct according to Our command, when they were steadfast, and believed in Our signs. Verily thy Lord, he will judge between; hem on the Day of Resurrection as to that concerning which they disagree."

Surah liv. 43: "Are your unbelievers (Ye Makkans) better than those (i.e. of the days of Noah, Lot, Moses, &c., just referred to;) or is there an immunity for you in the Scriptures? "

Surah xxxiv. 30: "And the unbelievers say : - We will not believe in this Qur'an, nor in that (which was revealed) before it."

Surah xli. 45: "And verily We gave Moses the book, and they felt to variance concerning it."

Surah xlv. 15, 16: "And verily We gave the children of Israel the book, and wisdom, and prophecy, and We nourished them with pleasant food, and We exalted them above the rest of the world; and We gave them plain directions in the matter (of religion;) and they fell not to variance until after divine knowledge (or the Revelation,) had come unto them, out of jealousy among themselves. Verily, thy Lord will decide between them on the Day of Judgment, concerning that about which they disagree."

Surah xxxvii. 84:" Verily when it is said unto them :—There is no God but the Lord; they arrogantly reply,—What! shall we give up our gods for a phrenzied poet? Nay, he


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cometh with the truth, and attesteth (the Revelations) of the (former) apostles."

Surah xxxvii. 114: "And verily we were gracious to Moses and Aaron, and saved them and their people from great tribulation; and We brought them assistance, and they were the conquerors; and We gave them the perspiouous book, and directed them into the right way."

Surah xxvi. 194: "Verily it (the Qur'an) is a revelation from the Lord of creation; the faithful Spirit bath caused it to descend' on thy heart, that thou mightest be one of the warners, in the plain Arabic tongue. And verily it is in the former Scriptures. What! is it not a sign unto them that the wise men of the Children of Israel recognize it?"

Surah xlvi. 12: "And when they refuse to be guided thereby, they say ;—this is an antiquated lie. Yet preceding it there is the Book of Moses, a guide and a mercy; and this Qur'an is a book attesting (previous Revelation), in the Arabic tongue, to warn the transgressors, and glad tidings to the righteous."

Surah xlvi. 30: "And (call to mind) when We caused a company of the Genii 'to turn aside unto thee that they might hear the Qur'ăn; And, when they were present thereat, they said, - Give ear. And when it was ended, they returned to their people as warners; they said.,—Oh our people! verily we have heard a book revealed after Moses, atttesting the revelation that precedeth it; it leadeth to the truth, and unto the straight path."

Surah xxxv. 25: "And if they reject thee, verily they who preceded them rejected (their prophets), who brought them clear signs, and writings, and the enlightening book."

Surah xxxv. 31: "And that which We have revealed unto thee is the truth, attesting that which precedeth it?"

Surah xix. 11 "Oh John! take the book (the Taurat) with power;- and We gave, him wisdom while a child."

Surah xix. 28, 29: "And she (Mary) pointed to him (the infant Jesus:) they said, — How shall we speak with a child in the cradle? (The infant Jesus) said,— verily I am the servant of God; he hath given me the book (i.e. the Gospel), and made me a prophet."

Surah xlii. 1.: " Thus doth God the glorious and the wise, communicate inspiration unto thee, as he did unto those that preceded thee."

Surah xlii. 12: "He hath ordained unto you the religion which he commanded unto Noah, and which We have revealed unto thee, and which We commanded unto Abraham, Moses, and Jeans ;—saying, Maintain the true religion, and be not at variance therein."

Surah xlii. 14, 15: "And they did not differ until after the knowledge (of Divine, Revelation) came unto them, rebelliously 'among themselves: and unless the word had gone forth from thy Lord (respiting these) until a fixed time, verily the matter had been decided between them. And verily they that have inherited the book after them are in a perplexing doubt respecting the same. Wherefore invite men unto the true faith), and stand fast as thou hast been commanded, and follow not their desires. And say, I believe in whatever books God hath revealed, and I am commanded to decide between you; God is our Lord, and your Lord. To us will (be reckoned) our works - to you, yours. There is no ground of dispute between us and you. God will gather tin together, and to Him shall be the return."

Surah xl. 55, 66: "And verily We gave unto Moses guidance. and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit the book,—a guide and an admonition unto people of understanding hearts. Wherefore he patient, for the promise of God is true, and ask pardon for thy sin &c."

Surah xl. 72: "They who reject the book and that which We ha ye sent our messengers with (the Old and New Testament)— they shall know: when the collars shall be an their necks, acid the chains by which they shall he dragged into hell :—— then shall they be burned in the fire."

Surah xxv. 36: "And verily We gave Moses the hook, and We appointed his brother Aaron his helper."

Surah xx. 132: "And they (the Qaraish) say: — 'If he doth not bring us a sign from his Lord (we will not believe).' What I hath not an evident demonstration come unto them in the former pages?"

Surah xliii. 43: "And ask those of Our Apostles whom We have sent before thee, whether We have appointed any besides the Merciful, as a God whom they should worship."

Surah xii. 111: "It is not a story fabricated, but an attestation of (the revelation) which is before it, and an explanation of every matter, a guide and a mercy to the people that believe."

Surah xi. 17, 18: "These are they for whom there is no portion in the next life but fire: and that which they have done shall perish therein; vain will that be which they have wrought. What! (shall such a one be equal unto him) who proceedeth upon a plain direction front his Lord; and a witness from him (i.e. from the Lord) attendeth him, and before him (or it) is the Book of Moses a guide and a mercy."

Surah xi. 3: "And verily We gave Moses the book, and they fell to variance regarding it. And had not the word gone forth from thy Lord, surely the matter had been decided between them; and verily they are in perplexing doubt concerning the same."

Surah x. 37: "And this Qur'an is not such that it could have been fabricated by other than God: but it is an attestation of that (i.e. of those Scriptures) which precede it, and an explanation of the book,— there is no doubt therein,— from the Lord of creation. What' will they say, he (Muhammad) hath forged it? Say,—then bring a Surah like unto it."

Surah x. 13: "If thou art in doubt regard-


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ing that which We have sent down unto thee, then ask those who read the book (revealed) before thee. Verily the truth hath come unto thee from thy Lord; be not therefore amongst those that doubt."

Surah vi. 20: "Those to whom We have given the book recognize him as they recognize their own sons. They that have destroyed their own souls, these believe not."

Surah vi. 90: "These are they to whom We have given the book, and wisdom, and prophecy, and if these (the Quraish) disbelieve the same, verily We have given it in trust unto a people who are not disbelievers there- in. These are they whom God hath guided; wherefore persevere in the guidance of them."

Surah vi. 93: "And they do not estimate God with a just estimation, when they say,—God hath not sent down—(i.e. revealed, anything to Man. Say, who sent down the book, which Moses brought, a light and a direction to mankind? Ye (var. read, they) make (or transcribe) it upon sheets of paper which ye (or they) show, and ye (or they) conceal much; and ye are taught that which ye knew not, neither did your fathers. Say, —God: then leave them to sport in their follies.

Surah vi. 93 : "And this book We have revealed, - blessed,- certifying the truth of that (revelation) which precedeth it, and that thou mightest admonish the people of the city (Makkah) and those around it."

Surah vi. 114; "He It is that hath sent down to you the book, explaining (all things;) and those to whom We have given the book know that it (the Qur'an) hath been sent down from thy Lord in truth. Wherefore, be not thou (O Muhammad) among those that doubt."

Surah vi. 124: "And when a verse cometh unto them, they say,—We will not believe until there is brought unto us (a revelation) like unto that which the apostles of God brought."

Surah vi. 154: "Then We gave Moses the book complete as to whatever is excellent, and an explanation of every matter, and a direction and a mercy, if haply they might believe in the meeting of their Lord."

Surah vi. 155: "And this book (the Qur'an) We have sent down,—blessed; wherefore follow it, and fear God, if haply ye may find mercy; lest ye should say,—Verily the Scripture hath been revealed to two people (the Jews and Christians) before us, and we are ignorant of their reading —or lest ye should say — If the Scripture had been revealed to us, we surely would have followed, its direction and mercy." &c.

Surah xxviii. 44: "And verily We gave Moses the book, after that We had destroyed the former generations,—an enlightenment unto mankind, and a direction, and a mercy, if haply they might be admonished."

Surah xxviii. 47: "And thou wert not on the side of Mount Sinai, when We called out (to Moses ;.) but (thou art) a mercy from thy Lord, that thou mayest admonish a people unto whom no warner hath come before thee, if perchance they may receive admonition ;— and lest, if there befall them a calamity for the evil works they have committed, they should say,—Oh Lord! if thou hadst sent unto us a prophet., we had followed thy revelations, and been of the number of the believers. And now that the truth hath come unto them from us, they say,—if there were to come (a revelation) like unto that which came unto Moses (we should believe). What! do they not disbelieve in that which was given unto Moses heretofore: they say,—two impostures that mutually assist one another; and they say,—verily we reject them both. Say,— bring a book from God that guideth more aright than these two, If ye be true ; and if they answer not," &c.

Surah xxviii. 53: "Those to whom We have given the Scripture before it (i.e. before the Qur'an,) believe therein; and when it (the Qur'an) is read unto them, they say,—We believe in it; verily it is the truth from our Lord, surely we were Muslims from before."

Surah xxiii. 25: "And verily We gave Moses the book,, if haply they might be directed; and We made the son of Mary and his mother a sign," &c.

Surah xxi. 7: "And We sent not before thee (as Apostles) other than men whom We inspired: ask, therefore, the people of the Scripture, if ye know it not".

Surah xxi. 49: "And verily We gave Moses and Aaron the distinction (al-Furqan), and a light, and an admonition to the pious,—those who fear their Lord in secret, and who tremble for the. hour (of Judgment). This blessed admonition also We have sent down; will ye therefore deny it?"

Surah xxi. 105: "And verily We have written in the Psalms, after the Law, that my servants, the righteous, shall inherit the earth."

Surah xvii. 2: "And We gave Moses the book, and made it 'a direction to the Children of Israel, (saying) —Take ye not other than Me for a patron."

Surah xvii. 4, 5, and 7: "And We declared in the book, in respect of the Children of Israel,'—saying, Ye shall surely work corruptly on the earth twice, and ye shall be elated with great arrogance. And when the threat of the first of these two (visitations) came to pass,' We sent against you our servants of terrible strength, &c., and when the threat of the second (visitation) came to pass," &c.

Surah xvii. 55: "And verily We have bestowed favour upon some of the prophets more than upon others, and We gave David 'the Psalms," &c.

Surah xvii. 108: "Say,—Believe in it (the Qur'an), or believe not: — verily they unto whom the knowledge (of Divine Revelation) hath been given anterior to it, when they hear it recited unto them, fall down upon their faces worshipping: and they say,—Praised be our Lord; verily the promise of our Lord


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is fulfilled. And they fall down on their races weeping, and it increaseth their humility."

Surah xvi. 43: "And We have not sent before thee other than men whom We have inspired ;—wherefore ask the people of the Scripture if ye know not. (We sent than) with evident signs and books, and We have sent down unto thee the revelation, that thou mightest make, known to mankind that which bath been revealed to them, that haply they might reflect"

Surah xiii. 45: "And those who disbelieve say,—Thou art not sent ;—say,-—God sufficeth for a witness between me and between you, and also he with whom is the knowledge of the book."

Surah xxix. 27: "And We gave to him (i.e. to Abraham) Isaac and Jacob, and We placed among his descendants prophecy and the book."

Surah xxix. 46: "And contend. not with the people of the book (Jews and Christians) but in a generous manner, excepting those of them who act wickedly; and say,—We believe in that which hath been revealed to us, and in that which hath been revealed to you: and your God and our God is one, and we are to Him resigned."

Surah xxix. 47: "And thus have We sent down to thee the book (the Qur'an,) and those to whom We have given the Scripture believe in it."

Surah vii. 158: "And I will shortly write down it (i.e. my mercy,) for those who fear the Lord and give alms, and those who believe in our signs: those who shall follow the apostle, - the illiterate prophet,—whom they shall find written (i.e. described) in the Pentateuch and in the Gospel among them; be shall command them to do that which is excellent," &c.

Surah vii. 168: "And (call to mind) when thy Lord commanded that there should certainly be sent against them (i.e. the Jews) until the day of resurrection those that would afflict them with grievous distress ;—verily thy Lord is swift in vengeance, and he is surely forgiving and merciful. And We dispersed them in the earth amongst the nations; there are of them that are virtuous, and there are of them that are not so. And We proved them with blessings, and with adversities, if perchance they might return. And there succeeded after them a generation that inherited the book, who receive the temporal advantage of this world, and .say,—lt will be forgiven unto us. And if there come unto them an advantage the like thereof, they accept it. What I hath there not been taken from them the covenant of the book, that they should not say of God other than the truth, and they diligently study that which is therein."

Surah lxxiv. 30: "Over it (Hell) are nine-teen angels.; and We have not made the guardians of the fire other than angels; and We have not expressed their number, except as a trial to those who disbelieve, and in order that those to whom We have given the book may firmly believe, and that they who believe may increase in faith; and that those to whom We have given the book may not doubt, nor the believers."

Surah ii. 1-5: "This is the book In which there is no doubt,—a guide to the pious ;— they who believe In the Unseen, and observe prayer, and spend out of that which we have provided them with ;—and they who believe in that which hath been revealed unto thee, and that which hath been revealed before thee, and have faith in the life to come. These walk according to the direction of their Lord, and these are the blessed."

Surah ii. 36: "Oh Children of Israel! remember My favour wherewith I have favoured you, and fulfil My covenant,—I likewise will fulfil your covenant; and fear Me, and believe in that which I have revealed, attesting the truth of the (Scripture) which is with you: and be not the first to reject the same; and sell not my revelation for a small price; and clothe not the truth with error, and do not conceal the truth while ye know it."

Surah ii. 50: "And when We gave Moses the book and the distinction (between good and evil, - Furqan,) —if haply ye might be directed."

Surah ii. 71: "And when they (the Jews of al-Madinah,) meet the believers, they say, - We believe; but when they retire privately one with the other, they say,—Why do ye acquaint them with what God hath revealed to you, that they may therewith dispute with you before your Lord? What do ye not understand? Do they not know that God knoweth what they conceal as well as that which they make public."

Surah ii. 79: "What do ye (the Jews) believe in part of the book, and reject part thereof? But whosoever amongst you doeth. this, his reward shall be none other than disgrace in the present life, and in the Day of Judgment they shall be cut into a more awful torment."

Surah ii. 81: "And verily We gave Moses the Book, and caused prophets to arise after him, and We gave to Jesus, the Son of Mary, evident signs, and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit."

Surah ii. 89: "And when a Book (i.e. the Qur'an) came unto them from God, attesting the truth of that (Scripture) which is with them, (although they had from before been praying fof victory over those who disbelieve); yet when that came unto them which they recognised, they rejected the same."

Surah ii. 83: "And when it is said unto them ;—Believe in that which God hath revealed; they say —We believe, in that which hath been revealed unto us; and they' reject that which (hath been revealed) after it, although it be the truth attesting that which is with them."

Surah li. 85: "And verily Moses came unto you with evident, signs (or revelations); then ye took the calf," &c.

Surah ii. 86: "For he (Gabriel) hath caused it (the Qur'an) to descend upon thy heart by the command of God, attesting that


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(Scripture) which is before it, and a direction and good tidings to the believers."

Surah ii. 95 "And when a prophet came unto them from God. attesting that (Scripture) which is with them, a party of those who have received the Scripture cast the Book of God behind their backs, as if they knew it not."

Surah ii. 107: "The Jews say, the Christians are not (founded) upon anything; and the Christians say the Jews are not (founded) upon anything; and yet they read the Scripture."

Surah ii. 130 (see also Surah lii. 79) "Say —We believe in God and in what hath been revealed unto us, and in what hath been revealed unto Abraham, and Ishmael. and Isaac, and Jacob, and the Tribes; and in what hath been given unto Moses and unto Jesus and in what hath been given unto the prophets from their Lord: we make no distinction between any of them; and unto Him we are resigned."

Surah ii. 139; "Verily We saw thee turn about thy face into the Heavens: wherefore We will cause thee to turn towards a qiblah that will please thee —turn therefore thy face towards the holy temple: wheresoever thou art, turn thy face towards it. And verily those to whom the Scripture hath been given, they know that this is the truth from their Lord, and God is not unmindful of that which they do. And if thou broughtest unto those to whom the Scripture hath been given, every kind of signs they would not follow thy qiblah, nor wilt thou follow their qiblah," &c.

Surah ii. 142: "Those to whom We have given the Scripture recognise him as they recognise their own sons; but. verily a section of them hide the truth, although they know it."

Surah ii 169: "Verily they that conceal the Scripture which God hath revealed, and sell it for a small price;— these shall eat nought but the fire in their bellies, and God shall not speak unto them on the Day of Judgment, neither shall He purify them; they shall have bitter torment These are they that have bought error at the price of direction. and punishment at the price of pardon:—how shall they endure the fire !— this because God bath sent down the Book in truth; and they that dispute regarding the Book are in a grievous error."

Surah ii. 209: " Mankind was one people, and God sent. prophets as preachers of good tidings, and warners: and He sent down the Scripture with them in truth, that it might decide between men in that in which they differed —and they differed not therein, excepting those to whom it was given after there came to them clear demonstrations, wickedly amongst themselves; and God guided those that believed to the truth concerning which they disputed, by His will." &c.

Surah ii 254: "Of these prophets We have preferred some above others. Some of them hath God spoken unto, and He hath raised some of them to nigh dignity. And We gave unto Jesus, the Son of Mary, evident signs, and We strengthened Him by the Holy spirit. And if God bad pleased, those that came after them, would not have contended with one another, after the evident signs (or plain revelations), had come unto them. Yet they fell to variance. And amongst them were those that believed: and amongst them were those that disbelieved. And if God had wished, they had not contended with one another; but God doeth that which pleaseth Him."

Surah ii. 286: "The apostle believeth in that which hath been re.voaled unto him from his Lord: and the faithful, everyone of them. believeth In God, and in His angels, and in His books, and in His apostles; we make no distinction between any one of his apostles."

Surah lvii. 18: "And those that believe in God, and in His apostles, these are the righteous, and the witnesses with their Lord; they have their reward and their light; but, they that disbelieve, and accuse Our revelations of falsehood, these are the companions of hell-fire."

Surah lvii. 25: "We have verily sent Our apostles with evident demonstrations; and We revealed unto them the Scripture, and the Balance, that men might observe justice; and We revealed (the use of) Iron wherein is great strength. and advantages to mankind, and in order that God might know who assisteth him and his apostles in secret,—for God is mighty and glorious. and verily We sent Noah and Abraham; and. We placed amongst their posterity, prophecy and the Scripture: and amongst them were those that. were rightly directed, but many of them were evil-doers. Afterwards We caused Our apostles to follow in their footsteps; and We caused Jesus, the Son of Mary, to succeed them, and We gave him the Gospel: and We put into the hearts of his followers compassion and mercy; and as to Monasticism they invented the same,.— [We did not prescribe it unto them].- simply out of a desire to please God, but they have not observed it with a right observance. And We have given those of them that believe, their reward, but many or them are evil-doers. Oh ye that believe! fear God, and believe in His prophet. He will give you a double portion of His mercy, and will create for you a Light wherein ye shall walk, and forgive you, for the Lord is forgiving and merciful."

Surah xcviii. 1: "The unbelievers from amongst the people of the Book, and the idolaters. did not waver until there came unto them a clear—a prophet from God reading pure pages, containing right Scriptures: And those to whom the Scriptures have been given did not fall to variance, until after a clear (Revelation) had come unto them: and they are not commanded (in their own Scriptures) other-wise than that they should worship God, rendering unto Him the orthodox worship, and that they should observe prayer, and give alms: and this is the right faith."

Surah lxii. 5: "The likeness of those who are charged with the Law (the Taurat) and do not. discharge (the obligations of) it, is as


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the likeness of the Ass laden with books. Evil is the likeness of the people which rejecteth the signs of God: and God doth not guide the unjust people."

Surah xlviii. 29: " Muhammad is the prophet of God: and those who follow him are fierce against the unbelievers, but compassionate among themselves. Thou mayest see them bowing down, prostrating themselves, seeking the favour of God and his pleasure. Their signs are in their faces from the marks of their prostration. This is the likeness of them in the Pentateuch and the likeness of them in the Gospel, — as a seed which putteth forth its stalk and strengtheneth it, and swelleth and riseth on its stem, and delighteth the sower thereat, — that the unbelievers may he indignant thereat. "

Surah lxi. 6: And when Jesus, the Son of Mary, said — O children of Israel, verily I am an Apostle of God unto you, attesting that which is before me of the Taurat, and giving glad tidings of an apostle that shall come after me, whose name is Ahmad (the Praised)."

Surah iv. 48: "Hast thou not seen those to whom We have given a portion of the Scripture?—they buy error, and desire that ye may err from the way: and God best knowoth your enemies. God sufficeth for a patron. and God sufficeth for a helper. Of those who profess Judaism there are that dislocate words from their places. and say — 'we have heard, — and, have disobeyed'; and 'do thou hearken without hearing;' and, ' look upon us' ; twisting with their tongues, and reviling the faith. And if they had said, ' we have heard and obeyed and,' hearken'; and,' look upon us': it find been better for them and more upright : hut God hath cursed them for their unbelief, and they shall not believe, excepting a few. O ye unto whom the Scriptures have been given! believe in what We have revealed attesting that (Scripture) which is with you, before We deface your countenances, and turn them front backwards, or curse them as We cursed those who (broke) the Sabbath: and the command of the Lord was fulflilled."

Surah iv. 49: "Hast thou not seen those to whom a portion of the Scripture hath been given? they believe in false gods and idols, and they say to the unbelievers, These are better directed in the way than those who believe."

Surah lv. 52: "Do they envy mankind that which God hath given them of His bounty? And verily We gave to the children of Abraham the book and wisdom. and We gave them a mighty kingdom. Amongst them are those that believe in Him and thosei also that two away from Him."

Surah iv. 58 : Hast thou not seen those who fancy that they believe in that which hath been revealed unto thee, and in that I which hath been revealed before thee? They desire to go for a mutual decision unto the idol Jaghat : yet verily they have been commanded to disbelieve therein, and Satan desireth to deceive them into a wide deception."

Surah iv 130: "To God belongs whatever is in the heavens and in the earth, and verily We commanded those to whom the Scripture was given before you, and you likewise,— Fear God, and, if ye disbelieve, verily to God belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens end the earth."

Surah iv. 135: "O ye that believe behave in God and in his prophet, and in the book which He hath revealed to His prophet, and in the book which He revealed from before; and whoever disbelieves in God, and in His angels, and in His books, and in His prophets, and in the last day, verily he hath wandered info a wide error."

Surah iv. 149: "Verily they that reject God and His apostles, and seek to make a distinction between God and His apostles; and say,—We believe in a part, and we reject a part: and seek to take a path between the same these are infidels in reality, and We lave prepared for the infidels an ignominious punishment. But they that believe in God and in His apostles, and make no distinction between any of them, to these We shall surely give their reward, and God is forgiving and merciful. The people of the book will ask thee that thou cause a book to descend upon them front the heavens, and eerily they asked Moses for a greater thing than that," &c.

Surah iv. 161: "But those of them that are grounded in knowledge, and the faithful, believe in that which hath been revealed unto thee, and in that which hath been revealed before thee. And those that observe prayer, and give alms, and the believers in God and in the last day, unto these shall We ye a great reward. Verily We have revealed our will unto thee, as We revealed our will unto Abraham, and Iahmael. and Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and Jesus, and Job, and Jonas, and Aaron and Solomon, We gave unto David the Psalms; and Apostles, whom We have already made mention of unto thee; and God spake with Moses in open discourse," &c.

Surah iv. 169: "Ye people of the book! Do not extravagance in your religion; and say not of God other than the truth. For verily the Messiah, Jesus, the Son of Mary, is an apostle of God. and His word which he placed in Mary, and a spirit from Him. Wherefore believe in God and in His apostle; and say not,—" the Trinity"; - refrain; it will be better for you. For verily God is one God ; — far exalted is He above the possibility that there should be unto Him progeny! to Him belongeth whatever is in the heavens and in the earth, and He sufficeth as a guardian."

Surah iii, 2: "God! there is no God but He, the living, the eternal. He hath caused to descend upon thee the Scripture in truth, attesting that which is before it: and He sent down the Taurut and the Gospel from before for the guidance of mankind: and He sent down the Furqan. Verily they that reject the signs of God, to them shall be


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a fearful punishment. And God is mighty, a God of vengeance."

Surah lii. 19: "And those to whom the book was given, did not fall to variance until after that the knowledge came unto them, wickedly among themselves."

Surah iii. 23: "Seest thou not those to whom a portion of the Scripture hath been given? They were called unto the book of God, that it might decide between them. Then a party of them turned away, and went aside. That was because they say,— the fire shall not touch us, but for a limited number of days. And that. which they have devised hath deceived them in their religion.."

Surah iii. 48: "And (God) shall teach Him (Jesus) the Scripture, and wisdom,and the Tourat, and the Gospel ;— and (shall send Him as) an Apostle unto the Children of Israel. (Jesus shall say) Verily I have come unto you — . . . attesting the truth of that which (Scripture revealed) before me in the Torat, and that I may make lawful unto you a part of that which is forbidden unto you."

Surah iii. 64: "O ye people of the Book: why do ye dispute concerning Abraham.?— seeing that neither the Tourat nor the Gospel was revealed until after him; do ye not understand? Ah! ye are they which dispute concerning that of which ye have knowledge: why, therefore, do ye dispute concerning that of which ye have no knowledge? and God knoweth, bat ye know not."

Surah iii. 68: "A party of the People of the Book desire to cause thee to go astray: but they shall not cause (any) to go astray, excepting their own souls, and they, perceive it not. Oh People of the Book I why do ye reject the signs of God, while ye bear testimony (thereto)? O people of the Book! why do ye clothe the truth with that which is false, and hide the truth, while ye know (it)? and a party of the people of the book say,—Believe in that which is sent down unto those that believe, in the early part of the day; and reject (it, in) the latter part thereof; if haply they may turn back: and, believe not (any) excepting him that fotloweth your religion. Say,—Verily the direction is the direction of God, that there should be given unto one (i.e. to Muhammad, a revelation) like unto that which bath been given unto you. Or, will they dispute with you before your Lord? say,— Verily favour is in the hand of God: He giveth it unto whomsoever He pleaseth; and God is widely comprehensive (in His mercy) and wise."

Surah iii. 77: "And verily amongst them is a party that twist their tongues in (reading) the book, that ye may think it is out of the book, though it is not out of the book; and they say,—' It is from God,' and it is not from God; and they speak a falsehood concerning God, knowingly."

Surah iii. 78: " It becometh not a man that God should give him a book, and wisdom, and prophecy, and that he should then say to mankind, Be worshippers of me besides God; but rather, Be ye perfect, inasmuch as ye know the book, and inasmuch as ye study it."

Surah iii. 80: "And (call to mind) when God made a covenant with the prophets, (saying) This verily is the book and the wisdom which I have given unto, you; thereafter shall come an Apostle attesting the truth of that (Scripture) which is with you; ye shall surely believe in him, and assist him."

Surah iii. ‘98 : "All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, excepting that which Israel made unlawful to himself, before the Tourat was revealed. Say, —Bring hither the Tourat, and read it, if ye be true. And whoever contriveth a lie concerning God after that, surely they are the transgressors."

Surah iii. 99: "Say; O ye People of the Book! why do ye disbelieve in the signs of God, and God is witness of that which ye do? Say, O ye People of the Book! why do ye hinder from the way of God him that believeth, desiring to make it (the way of' God) crooked, while ye are witnesses?"

Surah iii. 113: "They are not all alike. Amongst the People of the Book there is an upright, race that read the signs (or revelations) of God in the night season, and they bow down worshipping. They believe in God and the last day, and command that which is just and dissuade from that which is wicked, and: they make haste in doing good works. These are the virtuous ones."

Surah iii. 119: "Behold, ye are they that love them (the Jews) and they do not love you, and ye believe in the entire Scripture."

Surah iii. 184: "They who say that God hath made a covenant with us, to the effect that we should not believe on an apostle until be cometh unto us with a sacrifice to be consumed by fire - say. — Verily apostles have come unto you before me, with evident demonstrations, and, with that of which ye speak. Why, therefore, have ye slain them, if ye be true? and if they accuse thee of imposture, verily the apostles before thee have been accused of imposture, who came with evident demonstrations, and the Scriptures, and the enlightening book."

Surah iii. 188; "And when God took a covenant from those to whom the book was given,—that. they should unfold the same to mankind, and that they should not conceal it, and they threw it (the covenant) behind their backs, and sold it for a small price, and woeful is that which they have sold it for; think not that they who rejoice in that which they have done, and desire to be praised for that which they have not done, shall escape from punishment. To them shall be a grievous punishment."

Surah iii. 199: "And verily of the People of the Book there are those who believe in God, and in that which hath. been revealed to you, and in that which hath been revealed to them, submissive unto God; they sell not the signs of God for a small price. These are they who have their reward with their Lord; for God is swift in taking account."


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Surah v .14-16: "And for that they have broken their covenant. We have cursed them, and We have made their hearts hard; they dislocate the word from its place, and they have forgotten a part of that whereby they were admonished. Thou wilt not cease to discover deceit in them, excepting. a few of them.. But, pardon them, and forgive, for ‘God loveth the beneficent. And of those that say, We are Christians, we have taken a covenant from them, and they have forgotten a part of that whereby they were admonished. Wherefore We have placed enmity and hatred between them, until the Day of Judgment; and God will surely then declare unto them that which they have wrought. O people of the Book! verily our apostle hath come, unto you; he shall make manifest unto you much of that which ye have hidden of the book, and he shall pass over much."

Surah v. 47: "O thou apostle! let not those grieve thee who make haste after infidelity from amongst them that say, ‘We believe.' with their mouths, but their hearts believe not. And from amongst the Jews there are that spy out in order to tell a falsehood; they spy out, for another people that come not unto thee. They dislocate the word from out of its place. They say, ‘If this be given you, then receive it — but if it be not given you, then beware."

Surah v. 50: " And how will they make thee their Judge, since they have, beside them the Tourat, in which is the command of God? Then they will turn their back after that, and these are not believers. Verily We have revealed the Tourat; therein is guidance and light. The prophets that submitted themselves to God judged thereby those that were, Jews; and. the doctors and priests (did the same), in accordance with that which was confided to their charge of the book of God, and they were witnesses thereof. Wherefore fear not man, but fear Me, and sell not thou the signs of God for a small price, And he that doth not judge by that which God hath revealed, verily they. are the unbelievers. And We have written for them, — verily life for life, and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth; and for wounding, retaliation; and he that remitteth the same as alms it shall be an atonement unto him. And he that judgeth not by that which God hath sent down, they are the transgressors. And We caused Jesus, the Son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, attesting the Scripture of the Tourat, which preceded it; and We gave Him the Gospel, wherein is guidance and light which God

hath revealed, and follow not their rain desires (by swearing) away from that which hath come unto thee. To every one of you have We given a law and a way; and if God had pleased He had made you all of one faith: - but (He hath not done so, in order) that He might try you in that which He hath given you."

Surah v. 68: "Say — O people of the Book! is there any other cause of your enmity against us, but that we believe in God, and in. that which hath been revealed unto us, and in that which. hath been revealed from before? — but the most of you are evil doers."

Surah v. 77: "Say :—O ye people of the Book! ye are not grounded upon anything, untill ye set up (or observe) the Tourat and the Gospel, and that which hath been revealed unto you from your Lord."

Surah v. 91: "Thou wilt surely find the most bitter amongst mankind in their hatred towards those that believe to he the Jews and the idolaters. And thou wilt surely find the most friendly inclined amongst them towards the believers, to be those who say, We are Christians. That is because there are amongst them clergy and monks, and they are not arrogant. When they hear that which hath been revealed to the prophet, thou Wilt see their eyes flowing with tears because of that which they recognise of the truth. They say, O our Lord! we believe; write us down with the witnesses; and what should binder us that we should not. believe in God, and in that which hath come unto us of the truth? and we desire that our Lord should introduce us amongst the righteous; God hath rewarded them for that which they have said, with gardens through which flow rivulets. They shall be for over therein and that is the reward of the virtuous."

Surah v. 119: "And (call to mind) when God said, — O Jesus, Son of Mary! remember My favour towards thee, and towards thy Mother, when I strengthened thee with the Holy Spirit, that thou shouldest speak unto man, in the cradle, and also in mature age; and I taught thee the Scriptures, and wisdom, and the Tourat, and the Gospel; and when thou madest of clay in the form of a bird by My command, and thou blewest thereupon, and it became a bird by My command; and thou healedst the blind and the leper by My command; and when thou didst raise the dead by My command.... And when I spake by inspiration unto the apostles, saying, — Believe in Me, and in My apostle (i.e. Jesus;) they said,—We believe; bear witness that we are true believers."

Surah lxvi. 13: "And Mary the daughter of Imran, who preserved her virginity; and. We breathed into her of Our spirit, and she attested the words of her Lord and His Scriptures, and was amongst the pious."

Surah ix. 113: "Verily, God hath bought from the believers their selves and their wealth, on the condition of paradise for them they fight in the ways of God :—and whether they slay or be slain, the promise of God


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thereupon is true in the Taurat, and in the Gospel, and in the Qur'an." [CHRISTIANTTY, JEWS, JUDAISM.]

OMER.

['UMAR.]

OMMIADES.

Arabic Bani Umaiyah or ad Daulatu 'l-Umawiyah. . The dynasty of Khalifah who reigned from A.H. 41 (A.D. 661) to A.H. 132 (A.D. 750). descended from Muawiyah, who was the great grandson of Umiyah of the Quraish tribe. Mu'awiyah, the son of Abu Sufyan, took possession of the Khalifate on the death of al-Hasan, and established bin capital at Damascus. The dynasty includes the names of fourteen Khalifahs.

1. Mu'awiyah, A.H. 41
2. Yazid (son of Mu'awiyah), A.H. 60.
3. Mu'awiyah II (son of Yazid), A.H. 64.
4. Marwan 1. (son of al-Hakam), A.H. 64.
5. 'Abdu 'l Malik (Son of Marwan), A.H. 65.
6. Al-Walid (son of 'Abdn 'l-Malik), A.H. 86.
7. Sulaiman (aon of 'Abdu 'l-Malik), A.H. 96.
8. Urnar II. (son of 'Abdu 'l-'Aziz, son of Marwan). A.H. 99.
9. Yazid II. (son of 'Abdu 'l-Malik), A.H. 101.
10. Hishim (son of 'Abdu 'l-Malik), A.H. 105.
11. Al-Walid II. (son of Yazid), A.H. 125.
12. Yazid III. (son of al-Walid), A.H. 126. l3.
13 Ibrahim (son of al-Walid), A.H. 126.
14. Marwan II (son of Muhammad, son of Marwan), AH. 127—132.

The Abbasides conquered Khorasan under the brothers Ibrahim and 'Abu 'l-'Abbas, and refused to acknowledge Marwan. Marwan was afterwards defeated on the banks of the Zab, and fled to Egypt, where he was again defeated and slain, A.H. 132 (A.D. 750), and Abu 'l-'Abbas was proclaimed Khalifah. [KHALIFAH.]

OPTION.

[KHIYAR.]

ORDINATION.

There is no ceremony in Islam corresponding to the Christian ordination, Sometimes the Imam of a mosque is appointed by the chief man of position binding a turban round his bead. In Central Asia, Maulawis of reputation certify as to the learning and ability of their disciples by binding a turban on their heads and authorizing them to teach. But it is not a custom of the Muslim religion.

ORNAMENTS.

Men are prohibited from the use of ornaments of gold, such as rings and the like, because they are expressly forbidden by the Prophet. Ornaments of silver are likewise unlawful, but exceptions are made with respect to signet rings, girdles, or swords, which may be ornamented with silver. (Hidayah, vol. iv. p. 92). Ibn Zuhair says the Prophet condemned the use of little bells as ornaments for children, for he said there was a devil in every bell. Ibn Malik says the Prophet forbade the wearing of gold rings, and he considered it just as bad to use gold ornaments. (Mishkat, book xx. ch. ii.)

The Wahhabis condemn the use of ornaments and silk dresses.

ORPHANS.

Arabic yatim , pl. yatatam In Muhammadan law, the term is used for a child whose father is dead.

Muhammad gave very special instructions in the Qur'an as to the treatment of orphans. See Surah iv. 2—7:-

"And give to the orphans their property and substitute not worthless things of your own for their valuable ones, and enjoy not their property in addition to your own; verily this is a great crime: and if ye are apprehensive that ye shall not deal fairly with orphans, then, of other women who seem good in your eyes, marry but two, or three, or four; and if ye still fear that ye shall not act equitably, then one only, or the slaves whom ye have acquired; this will make justice on your part easier. And give women their dowry as a free gift; but if of their own free will they kindly give up aught thereof to you, then enjoy it as convenient and profitable. And entrust not to the incapable the substance which God hath placed with you as a means of support, but maintain them therewith; and clothe them, and speak to them with kindly speech. And make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage; and if ye perceive in them a sound judgment, then, hand over their substance to them; but consume ye it not profusly and hastily. Only because they have attained their majority. And let the rich guardian not even touch it; and let him who is poor, then use it for hits support with discretion. And when ye make over their substance to them, then take witnesses in their presence. God also taketh a sufficient account."

According to al-Baizawi and the Jalalan, the Muslim commentators understand these verses differently. Mr. Sale says the true meaning seems to be: Muhammad, advising his followers, that if they found they should wrong the female orphans under their care, either by marrying them against their inclinations, for the sake of their riches or beauty, or by not using or maintaining them so well as they ought by reason of their having already several wives, they should rather choose to marry other women, to avoid all occasion of Sin. Others say that when this passage was revealed, many of the Arabians, fearing trouble and temptation, refused to take upon them the charge of orphans, and yet multiplied wives to a great excess and used them ill or, as others write, gave themselves up to fornication, which occasioned the passage. And according to these, its meaning must be either that if they feared they could not act justly towards orphans, they bad as great reason to apprehend they could not deal


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equitably with so many wives, and therefore are commanded to marry but a certain number; or else, that since fornication was a crime as well as a wronging of orphans, they ought to avoid that also by marrying according to their abilities.

OTHMAN.

['USMAN.]

OUTLAWS.

(1) An Apostate, if he escapes to another country, is an outlaw.

(2) A fornicator should be expelled from his country and be an outlaw for a whole year.


Hughes' Dictionary of Islam
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